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The Hindu Newspaper Analysis 6th September 2022

 

The Hindu Newspaper Analysis for UPSC

 

Truss may be next UK PM

Gorbachev

  • Gorbachev, who passed away last week, has been hailed for his role in ending the ideological conflict between communism and capitalism, and also bringing down the Iron Curtain and ending the Cold War between the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) and the Soviet Union.
  • Gorbachev had favoured a slow transition to a “mixed economy” like the Indian model and had approached Rajiv Gandhi for advice.
  • Overall life expectancy is a good measure of the well-being of a nation’s citizens. When all citizens are well-nourished, when public health systems function well, and when violence in
  • George DeMartino, author of The Tragic Science: How Economists Cause Harm (Even As They Aspire To Do Good).
  • In capitalism, whoever owns something has the right to determine how it will be used; and whosoever owns more shares in a property must have a greater say.
  • when capitalism is unleashed, inequalities will increase, as they have in Russia and around the world since the 1990s.
  • India’s economic governance must be guided by Mahatma Gandhi’s calculus, with principles of human rights and community management, to realise the promise of our commons, and provide “poorna swaraj” to all citizens.

Difficult path to India-Pakistan peace

Rear Guard Action

Seat belts and safety regulations

  • Merely days after the release of the National Crimes Records Bureau report that stated that those killed in road accidents — 1,55,622 in 2021 — had reached the highest level since 2014.
  • It is well understood today that the use of low-cost restraint systems such as seat belts and airbag equipment have helped reduce car passenger-related fatalities effectively.
  • The focus on whether compulsory use of seat belts in cars — including by passengers in the rear seat — can save lives during such accidents.
  • Brasilia Declaration on Road Safety (2015):
    • The declaration was signed at the second Global High-Level Conference on Road Safety held in Brazil. India is a signatory to the Declaration.
    • The countries plan to achieve Sustainable Development Goal 3.6 i.e. to halve the number of global deaths and injuries from road traffic accidents by 2030.
  • Decade of Action for Road Safety 2021-2030:
    • The UN General Assembly adopted resolution “Improving global road safety ” with the ambitious target of preventing at least 50% of road traffic deaths and injuries by 2030.
    • The Global Plan aligns with the Stockholm Declaration, by emphasizing the importance of a holistic approach to road safety.

Funding public education

  • The idea that higher education could be funded fully by students or their parents is grossly misplaced
  • The NEP noted that public expenditure on education in India was nowhere close to the 6% of GDP envisaged by the 1968 policy, reiterated in the 1986 policy, and reaffirmed in the 1992 review of the policy.
  • Going by the National Education Commission, also known as the Kothari Commission, which was the precursor to the 1968 policy, higher education should have been getting at least 2% of GDP.
  • Higher education in India is already highly privatised. Most private higher education institutions are run on a self-financed basis, a euphemism for full cost-recovering institutions. Besides, private tendencies have also penetrated deeply into public higher education.

SC, if hijab can be allowed in school

  • “You may have a right to wear a hijab, but can you wear that right to school,” a Bench of Justices Hemant Gupta and Sudhanshu Dhulia formulated the substantial question of law on a batch of petitions filed by students from Karnataka who were prohibited entry into their classrooms for wearing hijab.
  • “The practice may be essential or it may not be essential. The question here is whether in a government institution, you can insist on carrying on your religious practice… because the Preamble to the Constitution states we are a secular country,” Justice Gupta observed orally.

preventive detensions rose in 2021

  • Preventive detentions in 2021 saw a rise by over 23.7% compared with the year before, with over 1.1 lakh people being placed under preventive detention, according to statistics released by the National Crime Records Bureau (NCRB) last month.
  • Of these, 483 were detentions under the National Security Act, of which almost half (241) were either in custody or still detained as of 2021-end.

Preventive Detention

  • Detention in its simplest sense means to curb the liberty of an individual i.e. without the knowledge of that individual.
  • There are 2 types of Detention:
    • Preventive Detention
    • Punitive Detention
  • Constitutional legitimacy
    • Article 22 of the Indian Constitution provides protection against arrest and detention in certain cases.
    • Article 22 (1) of the Indian Constitution says an arrested person cannot be denied the right to consult, and to be defended by, a legal practitioner of his choice.
    • It allows for preventive detention and restriction on personal liberty for reasons of state security and public order.
    • Article 22 (4) states that no law providing for preventive detention shall authorise the detention of a person for a longer period than three months unless:
      • An Advisory Board reports sufficient cause for extended detention.
      • The 44th Amendment Act of 1978 has reduced the period of detention without obtaining the opinion of an advisory board from three to two months. However, this provision has not yet been brought into force, hence, the original period of three months still continues.
    • Under Entry 9 of List I (better known as the ‘Union List’), Parliament has the exclusive power to enact a law for preventive detention for the reasons connected with defence, foreign affairs, or security of India.
    • On the other hand, under Entry 3 of List III (better known as the ‘Concurrent List’), both Parliament and State Legislature have powers to enact such laws for the reasons related to maintenance of public order or maintenance of supplies or services essential to the community.
    • Under Section 151 of The Criminal Procedure Code, 1973 (CrPC) preventive detention is action taken on grounds of suspicion that some wrong actions may be done by the person concerned.
    • Parliament passed a legislation named Preventive Detention Act, 1950 which talks about the detention of a person on the grounds of defense, foreign affairs or the security of the state.

Safeguards Provided in Constitution

  • To prevent reckless use of Preventive Detention, certain safeguards are provided in the constitution.
    • A person may be taken to preventive custody only for 3 months at the first instance. If the period of detention is extended beyond 3 months, the case must be referred to an Advisory Board consisting of persons with qualifications for appointment as judges of High Courts. It is implicit that the period of detention may be extended beyond 3 months, only on approval by the Advisory Board.
    • The detainee is entitled to know the grounds of his detention. The state, however, may refuse to divulge the grounds of detention if it is in the public interest to do so. Needless to say, this power conferred on the state leaves scope for arbitrary action on the part of the authorities.
    • Thirdly, the detaining authorities must give the detainee earliest opportunities for making representation against the detention.

 

Mains Practice Question:

Q) Gender equality or parity will happen only when there is a change in mindset and institutions consider women as assets rather than simply a diversity rectification issue. Explain (150 words)

लैंगिक समानता या समानता तभी होगी जब मानसिकता में बदलाव होगा और संस्थाएं महिलाओं को केवल विविधता सुधार के मुद्दे के बजाय संपत्ति के रूप में मानती हैं। समझाएं (150 शब्द)

 

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