The Hindu Newspaper Analysis for UPSC
- Mathura-Vrindavan, one of India’s largest pilgrimage centres, aims to become a “net zero carbon emission” tourist destination by 2041, Uttar Pradesh government officials have told The Hindu.
- This means that tourist vehicles will be banned from the entire Braj region, which includes famous pilgrim centres such as Vrindavan and Krishna Janmabhoomi. Instead, only electric vehicles used as public transport will be allowed into the area.
- All 252 waterbodies and 24 forests in the area will also be revived, officials privy to the U.P. government’s draft redevelopment plan said.
- Braj Teerth Vikas Parishad, the nodal agency for implementing the plan.
- Not just Delhi, hospitals in Indo-Gangetic plain seeing a rise in patients with pollution-related complaints; people advised to stay indoors for the next few days during peak air pollution levels
- “This applies especially for the vulnerable population including children, pregnant women, older people, and those with compromised immunity.
- The World Health Organisation (WHO) states that breathing in pollutants leads to inflammation, oxidative stress, immunosuppression, and mutagenicity in cells throughout our body, impacting the lungs, heart, brain among other organs and ultimately leading to disease.
National Clean Air Programme (NCAP)
- It was launched by the MoEFCC in January 2019 as a long-term, time-bound, national level strategy that features:
- Making determined efforts to deal with the air pollution problem across the country in a comprehensive manner.
- Achieving 20% to 30% reduction target in Particulate Matter concentrations by 2024 where 2017 is kept as the base year for the comparison of concentration.
- Identification of 122 non-attainment cities across the country based on the 2014-2018 Air Quality data.
Air Quality Index (AQI)
The AQI is an index for reporting daily air quality.
- It focuses on health effects one might experience within a few hours or days after breathing polluted air.
- AQI is calculated for eight major air pollutants:
- Ground-level ozone,
- Carbon monoxide,
- Sulfur dioxide,
- Nitrogen dioxide,
- In his address, Mr. Puri said that the objective was to fully utilise the potential of urban transport systems, including buses and metros across the country, by the year 2047.
- A psychological transition was essential to encourage citizens to shift from private vehicles to the public transport system, he added.
- The Union Ministry of Housing and Urban Affairs proposed a Central Vista redevelopment project in 2019.
- The project envisages
- Constructing a triangular Parliament building next to the existing one.
- Constructing Common Central Secretariat.
- Revamping of the 3-km-long Rajpath — from Rashtrapati Bhavan to India Gate.
- North and South Block to be repurposed as museums.
- In December, 1911, King George V made an announcement in Delhi Durbar (a grand assembly) to shift the capital of India from Calcutta to Delhi.
- Delhi Durbar was hosted to mark the coronation of King George V.
- The task of constructing a new city was given to Edwin Lutyens, known for his strong adherence to European Classicism and Herbert Baker, a prominent architect in South Africa.
- Herbert Baker is also the architect of the Union buildings at Pretoria, South Africa.
- Parliament House building was designed by both Lutyens and Baker.
- Rashtrapati Bhavan was designed by Edwin Lutyens.
- The Secretariat which includes both north and south block was designed by Herbert Baker.
- 27th Conference of Parties (COP27, beginning November 6, in Egypt) of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC).
- In the run-up to COP26, last year in Glasgow, several developed countries had declared their intention to reach net-zero emissions by 2050.
- In 2021, 733 million people had no access to electricity and almost 2.6 billion people lacked access to clean fuels and technologies. The average per capita energy use of the richest 20 countries is 85 times higher than that of the 20 poorest countries.
- In this background, COP27 affords a critical moment to acknowledge and address the concerns surrounding energy access and security in developing countries.
- In the United States, 81% of primary energy is from fossil fuels. In Europe, fossil fuels constitute 76% of the energy consumption (coal, oil, and natural gas contribute 11%, 31%, and 34% respectively).
- At COP27, the global South must put the question of its energy poverty and the severe global inequalities in energy access squarely at the centre of all discussions
- We need to achieve zero hunger, zero malnutrition, zero poverty, and universal well-being even as we collectively contribute to ensuring effective climate action.
- A developing country leadership at COP27 can ensure effective discussions, based on equity and common but differentiated responsibilities and respective capabilities, on the relative responsibilities and sharing of mitigation and adaptation burdens while coping with loss and damage.
- India has the largest diaspora population, with nearly 1.35 crore non-resident Indians spread across the globe.
- Currently, the Election Commission of India (ECI) allows enrolled overseas citizens to vote in person at the polling station in the constituency where the person is registered as an overseas elector.
- In 2014, a committee constituted by the ECI to probe methods to enable overseas voters’ mandates concluded that proxy voting was the most viable, though some political parties objected to the idea.
- In 2020, the ECI approached the Government to permit NRIs to vote via postal ballots, similar to the system already used by service voters, i.e., the Electronically Transmitted Postal Ballot System (ETPBS), which allows registering their mandate on a downloaded ETPB and sending it to the returning officer of the constituency.
Electronically transmitted Postal Ballot System (ETPBS):
- ETPBS is developed by Election Commission of India with the help of Centre for Development of Advanced Computing (C-DAC), for the use of the Service Voters.
- It is a fully secured system, having two layers of security. Secrecy is maintained through the use of OTP and PINand no duplication of casted Electronically Transmitted Postal Ballot (ETPB) is possible due to the unique QR Code.
- Persons working in paramilitary forces and the military and government officials deployed in diplomatic missions outside India are classified as Service Voters.
- Beijing on Friday said it had named 11 bridges along its key Tibet-Xinjiang highway, parts of which run through Aksai Chin, after four Chinese soldiers killed in the June 2020 Galwan Valley clash.
- The June 2020 Galwan Valley clash followed the PLA’s aggressive moves along the Line of Actual Control (LAC) starting in April that year.
- The clash led to the loss of lives of 20 Indian soldiers and at least four Chinese soldiers, marking the worst violence on the border since 1967. China only announced its fatalities in February 2021.
- China on Friday outlined plans to further expand the global reach of its home-grown Beidou satellite navigation system, billed as its alternative to the U.S.’s Global Positioning System (GPS).
- Beijing has, since 2020, also made an outreach to South Asia and is already working, or in discussion with, a number of countries in the region, including Pakistan, Nepal, Bangladesh and Sri Lanka, over adopting the Beidou satellite (BDS) navigation system.
- Pakistan in 2014 became the first foreign country to set up a Beidou network. South Asia and Southeast Asia — both of which are key BRI regions — are a current focus of expanding Beidou’s presence.
Navigation with Indian Constellation (NavIC) Technology
- An autonomous regional satellite navigation system,also known as Indian Regional Navigation Satellite System (IRNSS), is developed by ISRO.
- It has been designed to provide accurate position information service to users in India as well as the region extending up to 1500 km from its boundary.
- It will provide two types of services:
- Standard Positioning Service (SPS): provided to all the users.
- Restricted Service (RS) : It is an encrypted service provided only to the authorised users.
- The IRNSS System is expected to provide a position accuracy of better than 20 m in the primary service area.
- Presently, it consists of 7 active satellites located at a distance of approximately 36,000 Km.
- 3 satellites are in Geostationary Orbit (GEO).
- 4 satellites are in inclined Geosynchronous Orbit (GSO).
Q) Which of the following was the first biosphere reserve designated by UNESCO in India?
- Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve
- Gulf of Mannar Biosphere Reserve
- Nanda Devi Biosphere Reserve
- Nokrek Biosphere Reserve
निम्नलिखित में से कौन भारत में यूनेस्को द्वारा नामित पहला बायोस्फीयर रिजर्व था?
- नीलगिरि बायोस्फीयर रिजर्व
- मन्नार बायोस्फीयर रिजर्व की खाड़ी
- नंदा देवी बायोस्फीयर रिजर्व
- नोकरेक बायोस्फीयर रिजर्व
November 3 will be the first ‘The International Day for Biosphere Reserves’, to be celebrated beginning 2022.
- Biosphere Reserve (BR) is an international designation by UNESCO for representative parts of natural and cultural landscapes extending over large area of terrestrial or coastal/marine ecosystems or a combination thereof.
- They are sites for testing interdisciplinary approaches to understanding and managing changes and interactions between social and ecological systems, including conflict prevention and management of biodiversity.
- Biosphere reserves are nominated by national governments and remain under the sovereign jurisdiction of the states where they are located.
- In South Asia, over 30 biosphere reserves have been established.
- The first one was the Hurulu Biosphere Reserve, in Sri Lanka, with 25,500 hectares of tropical dry evergreen forest.
- In India, the first biosphere reserve was designated by UNESCO in 2000, namely, the blue mountains of the Nilgiris stretching over Tamil Nadu, Karnataka and Kerala.
Q) With reference to the disqualification of convicted legislators from Assembly, consider the following statements:
- Section 8 of the Representation of the People Act (RPA), 1950, contains provisions aimed at decriminalising electoral politics.
- In Lily Thomas vs. Union of India, the Supreme Court struck down clause (4) of the Representation of the People Act (RPA), 1951 as unconstitutional.
Which of the above statements is/are correct?
- 1 only
- 2 only
- Both 1 and 2
- Neither 1 nor 2
विधानसभा से दोषी विधायकों की अयोग्यता के संदर्भ में, निम्नलिखित कथनों पर विचार करें:
- लोक प्रतिनिधित्व अधिनियम (आरपीए), 1950 की धारा 8 में चुनावी राजनीति को अपराध से मुक्त करने के उद्देश्य से प्रावधान हैं।
- लिली थॉमस बनाम भारत संघ में, सुप्रीम कोर्ट ने जनप्रतिनिधित्व अधिनियम (आरपीए), 1951 के खंड (4) को असंवैधानिक करार दिया।
उपरोक्त में से कौन सा/से कथन सही है/हैं?
- केवल 1
- केवल 2
- दोनों 1 और 2
- न तो 1 और न ही 2
- Section 8 of the Representation of the People Act (RPA), 1951, contains provisions aimed at decriminalising electoral politics.
- All other criminal provisions form a separate category under which mere conviction will not entail disqualification. A sentence of at least two years in prison is needed to incur such disqualification.
- Under Section 8(4) of the RPA, legislators could avoid immediate disqualification until 2013.
- The provision said that with respect to a Member of Parliament or a State legislator the disqualification will not take effect for three months.
- If within that period, the convicted legislator files an appeal or revision application, it will not take effect until the disposal of the appeal or application.
- In Lily Thomas vs. Union of India, the Supreme Court struck down clause (4) as unconstitutional, thus removing the protection enjoyed by lawmakers.
Q) Which of the following has recently released the Performance Grading Index (PGI) for States and Union Territories for 2020-21?
- Union Ministry of Education
- NITI Aayog
- Union Ministry of Home Affairs
- None of the above
निम्नलिखित में से किसने हाल ही में 2020-21 के लिए राज्यों और केंद्र शासित प्रदेशों के लिए प्रदर्शन ग्रेडिंग इंडेक्स (PGI) जारी किया है?
- केंद्रीय शिक्षा मंत्रालय
- नीति आयोग
- केंद्रीय गृह मंत्रालय
- उपरोक्त में से कोई नहीं
The Ministry of Education has recently released the Performance Grading Index (PGI) for States and Union Territories for 2020-21.
- It is a unique index for evidence-based comprehensive analysis of school education systems across States and UTs.
- The prime objective of PGI is to promote evidence-based policy-making and highlight course correction to ensure quality education for all.
- As per the index, a total of seven States and Union Territories namely Kerala, Punjab, Chandigarh, Maharashtra, Gujarat, Rajasthan, and Andhra Pradesh have attained Level -2 grading in 2020-21.
- Gujarat, Rajasthan, and Andhra Pradesh are the new entrants with the highest achieved level.
- Union Territory Ladakh has made significant improvements in PGI from Level 8 to Level 4 in 2020-21.
- No state, however, has been able to attain the highest level of L1 so far.
Q) The National Food Security Act (NFSA) 2013 anchors which of the following
- Targeted Public Distribution System (TPDS)
- PM POSHAN scheme
- Integrated Child Development Services (ICDS)
- PM Kisan Samman Nidhi
Select the correct answer code:
- 1, 2, 4
- 1, 3
- 1, 2, 3
- 1, 2, 3, 4
राष्ट्रीय खाद्य सुरक्षा अधिनियम (एनएफएसए) 2013 निम्नलिखित में से किसका आधार है?
- लक्षित सार्वजनिक वितरण प्रणाली (टीपीडीएस)
- पीएम पोषण योजना
- एकीकृत बाल विकास सेवाएं (आईसीडीएस)
- पीएम किसान सम्मान निधि
सही उत्तर कोड चुनें:
- 1, 2, 4
- 1, 3
- 1, 2, 3
- 1, 2, 3, 4
- National Food Security Act (NFSA) 2013 anchors the Targeted Public Distribution System (TPDS), the PM POSHAN scheme (earlier known as the Mid-Day Meals scheme), and the Integrated Child Development Services (ICDS).
Q) In which of the following states is Ranipur Tiger Reserve located?
- Uttar Pradesh
रानीपुर टाइगर रिजर्व निम्नलिखित में से किस राज्य में स्थित है?
- उत्तर प्रदेश
- Ranipur Tiger Reserve in Uttar Pradesh has become the 53rd tiger reserve in India. As of right now, the RWS in the Chitrakoot district has no tigers of its own
- The Ranipur Tiger Reserve in the Chitrakoot district is the fourth in the state.
- The other tiger reserves in Uttar Pradesh include Dudhwa, Pilibhit, and Amangarh (a buffer of Corbett Tiger Reserve).
Mains Practice Question:
Q) What do you understand by Asian Century? Explain and discuss what are the opportunities for India amidst the growing significance of Asia.(150 words)
एशियन सेंचुरी से आप क्या समझते हैं? व्याख्या करें और चर्चा करें कि एशिया के बढ़ते महत्व के बीच भारत के लिए क्या अवसर हैं। (150 शब्द)
- The Asian Century refers to the dominant role that Asia is expected to play in the 21st century due to its burgeoning economy and demographic trends. The concept of the Asian Century gained credence following the rapid economic growth of China and India since the 1980s, which propelled both of them to the ranks of the world’s largest economies. After a gap of 200 years, Asian economies are again larger than the rest of the world’s combined.
Growing significance of Asia:
- China, in 2013, after attaining 15% of global wealth, announced the multilateral Belt and Road Initiative (BRI) and in 2014, launched the Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank, challenging the global governance paradigm.
- In 2015, emerging India established the International Solar Alliance, laying out a distinct global sustainable development framework, and seeking a triumvirate.
- The United States has recognised the ‘Asian Century’ bypassing multilateralism; its direct dealings with China and India and the Indo-Pacific construct are examples
Opportunities for India:
- Services: It accounts for 53% of India’s GDP
- Young labour force: younger than China’s median age by around ten years
- New markets for the rest of the region
- Growth: despite the downturn, GDP in India is expected to grow at well above 5% for the coming period. There is room for India to become a larger sourcing base for global supply chains.
- The Asian century is truly underway. As globalization gives way to regionalism, Asia takes a leading position. India could look to many of the opportunities arising out of the region’s rapid integration and shifting networks and flows to help drive its next chapter of growth
Mains Practice Question:
Q) Discuss the interrelationship between an outbreak of a disease and economy of a country. (150 words)
किसी देश की बीमारी के प्रकोप और अर्थव्यवस्था के बीच अंतर्संबंधों की विवेचना कीजिए। (150 शब्द)