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The Hindu Newspaper Analysis 30 November 2022

 

The Hindu Newspaper Analysis for UPSC

The Hindu Newspaper Analysis 29 November 2022

  • The Supreme Court on Tuesday said that increasing the number of judges will not demolish the perennial problem of pendency, noting that it is already difficult finding good lawyers to accept the call to the Bench in High Courts.
  • The court said that a public interest litigation (PIL) petition seeking to “double” the number of judges in the High Courts and the district judiciary was a rather “simplistic” solution to arrears.
  • At one point, Chief Justice of India D.Y. Chandrachud asked petitioner-advocate Ashwini Kumar Upadhyay whether he wanted the Supreme Court to increase its judicial strength to 70 from the current 34.
  • As per the Article 124(1) of the Constitution of India, the strength of the Supreme Court is fixed by the law made by the Parliament.
  • In 2019 Cabinet has taken a decision to increase the strength (an increase of 10%) from 31 to 34 judges including the Chief Justice of India (CJI).
  • The Supreme Court (Number of Judges) Act, 1956 was last amended in 2009 to increase the judge’s strength from 25 to 31 (including the CJI).

The Hindu Editorial Today

  • It was an uneasy compromise reflected in the wording of Part XVII (Articles 343-351).
  • Article 345 leaves it to the State to choose its language for official purposes. In actual practice, several States and Union Territories continue to use English.
  • Article 348 stipulates that all proceedings of the Supreme Court and ‘of every High Court’ and of Bills, etc. in Parliament shall be in the English language.
  • The Eighth Schedule and the periodic additions to it (now numbering 22) spell out the diversity and complexity of the language landscape as do the Official Languages Act of 1963 and its Rules made in 1976 and amended in 1987, 2007 and 2011.
  • Article 351 directs the state, in the development of Hindi, to draw upon other languages in the composite culture of India.
  • the committee on official language, though consisting of 30 members of Parliament, is headed by the Home Minister. Its mandate is to review the progress made in the use of Hindi for official purposes, and to make recommendations to increase the use of Hindi in official communications. It submits its report to the President of India, who forwards its recommendations to the two Houses.
  • only the recommendations of the reports up to the ninth in the year 2010 have been forwarded to the Houses of Parliament. The 10th and 11th reports have been submitted to the President and are not in the public domain.

  • The Biden administration’s decision to ease sanctions on Venezuela and allow Chevron to return to its joint venture oil fields marks the end of Washington’s maximum pressure campaign aimed at ousting President Nicolás Maduro.
  • Former President Donald Trump took U.S. sanctions to the extreme by barring oil companies from operating in the South American country, which has the world’s largest oil reserves, and recognising Juan Guaidó, the self-declared unelected acting President.
  • Venezuela has the highest proven oil reserves in the world. The economy of Venezuela is mainly oil-based.
  • During the early 2000s, when oil prices were high, the Venezuelan government has used oil profits to reduce inequality and poverty, providing food subsidies.
  • Juan Guaido, the head of Venezuela’s opposition-led legislature declared himself acting leader of the oil-rich nation, citing some constitutional provisions and fraudulent Presidential elections in May 2018.
  • European Union (EU) Nations issued an ultimatum to Venezuelan President Nicolas Maduro to call for fresh elections within 8 days which was rejected by him.
  • Also, USA imposed unilateral economic sanctions which bar state-owned oil company Petroleos de Venezuela from collecting proceeds from crude sales to US refineries.
  • In response Nicolas Maduro broke off diplomatic ties with the U.S. government and ordered customers, with tankers waiting to load crude destined for the United States, to prepay.
  • Russia and China back Mr. Maduro and denounced Mr. Guaido’s bid as an “usurpation” of power and condemned foreign “interference” in Venezuela.
  • Nicolas Maduro is a socialist leading “United Socialist Party of Venezuela” supported by Russia, whereas Juan Guaido led “Democratic Unity Roundtable” favours free market democratic governance backed by US.

  • The Constitution (124th Amendment) Bill claims that the EWS from the general category have largely remained excluded in higher education institutions due to their financial incapacity. Thus, exclusion or under-representation in higher education is the primary justification for the EWS quota.
  • The Ajay Bhushan Pandey Committee, appointed to examine the EWS income criteria, argues that “considering that the currently effective income tax exemption limit is around ₹8 lakh for individuals, the committee is of the view that the gross annual income limit of ₹8 lakh for the entire family would be reasonable for inclusion into EWS”. Hence, these economically backward students can be considered the reasonable proxy for the EWS students from the general category.

  • A recent report titled ‘EnviStats India 2022’, published by the Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation, has highlighted the herculean challenge of disposing of the solid waste generated by the States without harming the environment.
  • over 13 lakh tonnes of construction and demolition waste were also generated in the city along with over 5.4 lakh tonnes of plastic waste, about 11 thousand tonnes of bio-medical waste, and 610 tonnes of e-waste. Delhi also generated 3,239 tonnes of hazardous waste. Hazardous waste is typically sludge from factories, industrial manufacturing process wastes and batteries.

  • The services at the All India Institute of Medical Sciences (AIIMS) in the national capital were carried out manually for the seventh consecutive day on Tuesday, after the hospital last week said its servers might have been subjected to a ransomware attack.
  • The AIIMS spokesperson, however, did not confirm or deny media reports that the hackers had allegedly demanded an estimated ₹200 crore in cryptocurrency from the hospital.

What is Ransomware attack:

  • A ransomware attack is a cyberattack using malware that encrypts the victim’s files and requires users to pay a ransom to decrypt the files.
  • It is often designed to spread across a network and target database and file servers, and can thus quickly paralyze an entire organization.
  • Unlike other cyber-attacks, in this form of attack, the user is notified of the attack.
  • Ransomware spreads easily when it encounters unpatched or outdated software.
  • Information Technology Act, 2000 (Amended in 2008): It is the main law for dealing with cybercrime and digital commerce in India.
  • National Critical Information Infrastructure Protection Centre (NCIIPC) was created under Section 70A of IT Act 2000 to protect Cyber infrastructure.
  • CERT-In (Cyber Emergency Response Team, India): It is National Nodal Agency for Cyber Security and is Operational since 2004
  • National Cyber Security Policy, 2013: The policy provides the vision and strategic direction to protect the national cyberspace.
  • Cyber Swachhta Kendra: Cyber Swachhta Kendra helps users to analyse and keep their systems free of various viruses, bots/ malware, Trojans,
  • Indian Cyber Crime Coordination Centre (I4C): Launched in 2018, It is an apex coordination center to deal with cybercrimes.
  • Cyber Surakshit Bharat: It was launched by the Ministry of Electronics and Information Technology in 2018 with the aim to spread awareness about cybercrime and building capacity for safety measures for Chief Information Security Officers and frontline IT staff across all government departments.
  • The Cyber Warrior Police Force: It was organised on the lines of the Central Armed Police Force in 2018.

  • The Indian Army is currently engaged in bilateral exercises with five countries under way both inside and outside the country meant to improve interoperability with. The 18th edition of India-U.S. Army exercise ‘Yudh Abhyas’ which is under way at Auli in Uttarakhand, about 100 km from the Line of Actual Control, has entered the validation phase and is set to conclude this week.
  • Other exercises such as Ex Austra Hind with Australia are under way at Mahajan field firing ranges in Rajasthan from November 28 to December 11 and Ex Agni Warrior with Singapore at Deolali from November 13 to December 03. The outgoing exercises are Ex Harimau Shakti with Malaysia from November 28 to December 12 and Ex Garuda Shakti with Indonesia, between Special Forces began on November 21. Ex KazInd with Kazakhstan is scheduled in mid-December.

  • The Union Rural Development Ministry has served notice on the Telangana government to return ₹151.9 crore spent under the Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme on construction of platforms for drying fish and grain which is not permitted under the scheme.
  • The team observed that the drying platforms were built under the name of foodgrain storage building, while no such building was found at the work site. Such platforms, the team noted, were constructed on individual beneficiary lands. This work is not one of the 265 permitted under the MGNREGS.
  • The Centre, in its notice, threatened to take action against the State under Section 27 of the MGNREGA that empowers it to give directions to the State for the effective implementation of the Act. A similar action was taken earlier this year against West Bengal.

  • Carbon Capture Utilisation and Storage (CCUS), the technology for decarbonising emissions from high polluting sectors such as steel, cement, oil, gas, petrochemicals, chemicals and fertilizers, has a critical role to play for the country to halve carbon dioxide emissions by 2050, says a report on the policy framework of the CCUS prepared by the NITI Aayog and MN Dastur & Company.
  • NITI Aayog Member V.K. Saraswat said that through the technology, CO2 coming from various thermal power plants or industrial plants would be captured.
  • CCUS involves the capture of CO2 from large point sources, such as power generation or industrial facilities that use either fossil fuels or biomass as fuel. The CO2 can also be captured directly from the atmosphere. If not being used on-site, the captured CO2 is compressed and transported by pipeline, ship, rail or truck to be used in a range of applications, or injected into deep geological formations (including depleted oil and gas reservoirs or saline aquifers), which can trap the CO2 for permanent storage.

 

  • Ten days after the first batch of over 270 Kuki-Chin refugees crossed over to India fearing an attack from Bangladesh security forces, government officials estimate that 150 more refugees are expected to seek shelter in Mizoram in the next few days.
  • A government official said that since India is not a signatory to the United Nations Refugee Convention of 1951 and its 1967 Protocol and does not recognise refugees, undocumented migrants are liable to be prosecuted for violating the Foreigners Act.

Who are the Kuki Chin Tribe?

  • The Mizo Hills (formerly Lushai), a mountainous region in the southeast of Mizoram and Manipur in India, is home to the Kuki people, an ethnic group.
  • In India, Bangladesh, and Myanmar, the Kuki are one of many hill tribes.
  • They exist in every state in Northeast India, with the exception of Arunachal Pradesh.
  • A total of fifty Kuki tribes in India are recognized as scheduled tribes based on the dialect and geographic origin of that particular Kuki community.
  • The Kukis are related to the Chin people of Myanmar and the Mizo people of Mizoram.

  • Fifteenth Finance Commission chairperson N.K. Singh on Tuesday called for a substantial increase in budgetary allocations for the health sector and restructuring of centrally sponsored schemes to enable greater flexibility for States.
  • Mooting the inclusion of ‘health’ in the Concurrent list under the Constitution, Mr. Singh also made a pitch for universalising health insurance to capture ‘the missing middle’ — people who are not rich enough to buy private health cover nor poor enough to qualify for government schemes.
  • “There is no getting away from the fact that public outlays in the health sector need to be substantially augmented. We need to enhance public outlays (on health) to 2.5% of GDP by 2025,” he said at the CII Health Summit.

What is the Finance Commission?

  • The Finance Commission is constituted by the President under article 280 of the Constitution, mainly to give its recommendations on distribution of tax revenues between the Union and the States and amongst the States themselves.
  • Who appoints the Finance Commission and what are the qualifications for Members?
  • The Finance Commission is appointed by the President under Article 280 of the Constitution.   As per the provisions contained in the Finance Commission [Miscellaneous Provisions] Act, 1951 and The Finance Commission (Salaries & Allowances) Rules, 1951, the Chairman of the Commission is selected from among persons who have had experience in public affairs, and the four other members are selected from among persons who:
  • are, or have been, or are qualified to be appointed as Judges of a High Court; or
  • have special knowledge of the finances and accounts of Government; or
  • have had wide experience in financial matters and in administration; or
  • have special knowledge of economics

Q) With reference to the Bluebugging, consider the following statements:

  1. It is a form of hacking that lets attackers access a device through its discoverable Bluetooth connection.
  2. Once a device or phone is bluebugged, a hacker can listen to the calls, read and send messages and steal and modify contacts.

Which of the above statements is/are Not correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

ब्लूबगिंग के संदर्भ में निम्नलिखित कथनों पर विचार कीजिये:

  1. यह हैकिंग का एक रूप है जो हमलावरों को खोज योग्य ब्लूटूथ कनेक्शन के माध्यम से डिवाइस तक पहुंचने देता है।
  2. एक बार किसी डिवाइस या फोन के ब्लूबग हो जाने के बाद, एक हैकर कॉल सुन सकता है, संदेश पढ़ सकता है और भेज सकता है और संपर्क चुरा सकता है और संशोधित कर सकता है।

उपरोक्त कथनों में से कौन-सा/से सही नहीं है/हैं?

  1. केवल 1
  2. केवल 2
  3. 1 और 2 दोनों
  4. तो 1 और ही 2

Explanation :

Cybersecurity experts recently noted that apps that let users connect smartphones or laptops to wireless earplugs can record conversations, and are vulnerable to hacks.

  • It is a form of hacking that lets attackers access a device through its discoverable Bluetooth connection.
  • Once a device or phone is bluebugged, a hacker can listen to the calls, read and send messages and steal and modify contacts.
  • It started out as a threat for laptops with Bluetooth capability.
  • Later hackers used the technique to target mobile phones and other devices.

Process:

  • Bluebugging attacks work by exploiting Bluetooth-enabled devices.
  • The device’s Bluetooth must be in discoverable mode, which is the default setting on most devices.
  • The hacker then tries to pair with the device via Bluetooth.
  • Once a connection is established, hackers can use brute force attacks to bypass authentication.
  • They can install malware in the compromised device to gain unauthorised access to it.
  • Bluebugging can happen whenever a Bluetooth enabled device is within a 10-metre radius of the hacker.
  • However, according to a blog by VPN service provider NordVPN, hackers can use booster antennas to widen the attack range.

Q) The proposed Dhamma Dipa International Buddhist University (DDIBU) is located in:

  1. Tripura
  2. Sikkim
  3. Nagaland
  4. Arunachal Pradesh

प्रस्तावित धम्म दीपा अंतर्राष्ट्रीय बौद्ध विश्वविद्यालय (DDIBU) स्थित है:

  1. त्रिपुरा
  2. सिक्किम
  3. नागालैंड
  4. अरुणाचल प्रदेश

Explanation :

Shakya Gasan, chief monk of the World Buddhist Pope Association of South Korea, will lay the foundation stone for the International Buddhist University at Manu Bankul in Sabroom of South Tripura district on November 29.

  • The Dhamma Dipa International Buddhist University (DDIBU) is expected to become the first Buddhist-run University in India to offer Buddhist education along with courses in other disciplines of modern education as well.
  • This university will set a precedent in the history of Indian-Buddhism in promoting and reviving Buddhist culture in India, the birthplace of Buddhism.
  • It will be the first Buddhist University in India to be headed by Buddhist monastics and run and monitored by Buddhists.
  • The word, Dhammadipa, describes both a core principle and a guiding force, which seeks the light of Dharma, its international scope and measure.

Q) Ima Market, recently seen in news, is located in:

  1. Kochi
  2. Imphal
  3. Udupi
  4. Chennai

हाल ही में खबरों में रहा इमा मार्केट स्थित है:

  1. कोच्चि
  2. इंफाल
  3. उडुपी
  4. चेन्नई

Explanation :

External Affairs minister S Jaishankar recently tweeted pictures of his visit to Manipur’s Ima market, calling it a “great example of nari shakti (women’s power) powering economic growth”.

  • Ima Keithel, or Mothers’ Market, is an all-women market, said to be the largest such shopping complex in Asia.
  • It is a unique all women’s market, having 3,000 “Imas” or mothers who run the stalls, it is split [into] two sections on either side of road.
  • Vegetables, fruits, fish and household groceries are sold on one side and exquisite handlooms and household tools on the other. Not far away is a street where beautiful wicker works and basketry are sold.
  • Male vendors and shopkeepers are barred here.
  • In 2018, the state government announced that legal action would be taken under the Manipur Municipalities Act, 2004 if any male vendor was found selling goods at the market.

Q) Consider the following statements:

  1. In India, the registration of Geographical Indication (GI) is valid for a period of 20 years.
  2. In India, Geographical Indication (GI) registration is administered by the Trade Marks Act, 1999.

Which of the above statements is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

निम्नलिखित कथनों पर विचार करें:

  1. भारत में, भौगोलिक संकेत (जीआई) का पंजीकरण 20 वर्षों की अवधि के लिए वैध है।
  2. भारत में, भौगोलिक संकेत (जीआई) पंजीकरण ट्रेडमार्क अधिनियम, 1999 द्वारा प्रशासित किया जाता है।

उपरोक्त कथनों में से कौन-सा/से सही है/हैं?

  1. केवल 1
  2. केवल 2
  3. 1 और 2 दोनों
  4. तो 1 और ही 2

Explanation:

  • About GI tag:
    • A GI is primarily an agricultural, natural or a manufactured product (handicrafts and industrial goods) originating from a definite geographical territory.
    • Typically, such a name conveys an assurance of quality and distinctiveness, which is essentially attributable to the place of its origin.

How long the registration of Geographical Indication is valid?

  • The registration of a geographical indication is valid for a period of 10 years.
  • It can be renewed from time to time for a further period of 10 years each.
  • In India, Geographical Indications registration is administered by the Geographical Indications of Goods (Registration and Protection) Act, 1999 which came into force with effect from September 2003. The first product in India to be accorded with GI tag was Darjeeling tea in the year 2004-05.

Mains Practice Question:

Q) Discuss the role of the Vice-President of India as the Chairman of the Rajya Sabha. (150 words)

राज्य सभा के सभापति के रूप में भारत के उपराष्ट्रपति की भूमिका की विवेचना कीजिए। (150 शब्द)

 

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