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The Hindu Newspaper Analysis 29 September 2022

 

The Hindu Newspaper Analysis for UPSC

Centre bans PFI
Centre bans PFI

The Hindu Newspaper Analysis 28 September 2022

Unlawful Activities (Prevention) Act (UAPA)

  • About:
    • It was enacted to provide for more effective prevention of certain unlawful activities of individuals and associations, and for dealing with terrorist activities.
    • It was amended in the years 2004, 2008, 2013, and 2019 to add certain provisions relating to various facets of terrorism.
  • Key provisions:
    • Both Indian and foreign nationals can be charged.
    • It is applicable even if the offence is committed outside india.
    • A charge sheet can be filed in maximum 180 days after the arrests.
    • The investigation has to be completed within 90 days and if not, the accused is eligible for default bail.
    • A Special Court under the UAPA conducts trials.

2019 Amendment under UAPA Act, 1967:

  • Union government may designate an individual or an organisation as a terrorist organisation if it:
    • commits or participates in acts of terrorism,
    • prepares for terrorism,
    • promotes terrorism, or
    • is otherwise involved in terrorism.
  • Approval of Director- General for seizure of property if the investigation is conducted by an officer of the National Investigation Agency (NIA)
  • Officers of the rank of Inspector or above in NIA can investigate cases.
  • International Convention for Suppression of Acts of Nuclear Terrorism (2005)  is added under the schedule under which terrorist act is committed.

PMGKAY
PMGKAY
  • The Union government has extended the Pradhan Mantri Garib Kalyan Anna Yojana (PMGKAY) for another three months from October 1.
  • This will allow beneficiaries under the National Food Security Act to continue to get five kg of food grains per person per month till December 31.
  • Insurance cover of Rs 50 Lakh per health worker fighting COVID-19 to be provided under Insurance Scheme – extended for one year effective April 2021
  • 80 crore poor people will to get 5 kg wheat or rice and 1 kg of preferred pulses for free every month for the next three months – extended to November 2021 (initially, the package was extended to May & June 2021; originally, it was extended to November 2020)
  • 20 crore women Jan Dhan account holders to get Rs 500 per month for next three months
  • Increase in MNREGA wage to Rs 202 a day from Rs 182 to benefit 13.62 crore families
  • An ex-gratia of Rs 1,000 to 3 crore poor senior citizen, poor widows and poor disabled
  • Government to front-load Rs 2,000 paid to farmers in first week of April 2020 under existing PM Kisan Yojana to benefit 8.7 crore farmers
  • Central Government has given orders to State Governments to use Building and Construction Workers Welfare Fund to provide relief to Construction Workers
discovered Buddhist caves and stupas
discovered Buddhist caves and stupas
  • The Archaeological Survey of India (ASI) earlier this year discovered Buddhist caves and stupas, and Brahmi inscriptions, dating back to the 2nd century, and Hindu temples from the 9th-11th centuries, and possibly the world’s largest Varaha sculpture also dating to the same period, at the Bandhavgarh Tiger Reserve in Madhya Pradesh.
  • Varaha, Lord Vishnu’s avatar who resembles a wild boar, is the most important sculptural. In his trunks, Varaha supports his wife Bhumi, mother earth. He has saved her from the clutches of Naga, the snake king.
  • Chaitya were the places of worship and assembly of the monks and it consists of stupa within the structure at one end.
  • The Vihara are the monastery where the monks used to live.

Schools of Buddhism

Mahayana:

  • It is one of the two main schools of Buddhism.
  • The term Mahayana is a Sanskrit word which literally means “Great Vehicle”.
  • It believes in the heavenliness of Buddha and Idol worship of Buddha and Bodhisattvas embodying Buddha Nature.
  • It originated in northern India and Kashmir and then spread east into Central Asia, East Asia and some areas of Southeast Asia.
  • Buddhist schools embedded in China, Korea, Tibet and Japan belong to the Mahayana tradition.
  • Hinayana
    • Literally Lesser vehicle, also known as Abandoned Vehicle or Defective vehicle. It believes in the original teaching of Buddha or Doctrine of elders.
    • It does not believe in Idol worship and tries to attain individual salvation through self discipline and meditation.
    • Theravada is a Hinayana sect.
NATO weaponry
NATO weaponry
  • Ukraine has been massively assisted by NATO weaponry, training, communications, satellite and human intelligence, reconnaissance, information processing systems and total control over the global media.
  • While the World Bank is slow to help devastated war-torn nations such as Yemen and Afghanistan, it rushed $4.5 billion to Ukraine, while the International Monetary Fund came up with $1.4 billion.
  • For example, the United States exerted much effort persuading India and others to boycott Iranian and Venezuelan oil, only to try to get those shipments back on the market after its opposition shifted to Russia.
  • In 2020, Russia declared it would use nuclear weapons in four instances: if alarmed by an incoming missile; subjected to attack by weapons of mass destruction; suffered damage to infrastructure that housed its nuclear arsenal, or when conventional war threatened the existence of Russia.
Nature-Warning
Nature-Warning
  • There has been an increase in the magnitude, the frequency and the intensity of floods in many parts of the world.
  • Flooding is still considered to be a natural phenomenon that cannot be entirely prevented.
  • But it is compounded by the lack of transparency in the sharing of hydrological information and also information relating to activities (such as by one riparian state) that are transboundary in their effect (affecting other riparian states), thus serving as an obstacle in understanding the magnitude of flooding.
  • In accordance with customary international law, no state has to use its territory in a manner that causes harm to another state while using a shared natural resource
  • During the monsoon, flooding has been the recurrent feature in the last several decades in Assam.
  • Neither India or China are party to the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Non-Navigational Uses of International Watercourses (UNWC) 1997 or the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE) on the Protection and Use of Transboundary Watercourses and International Lakes 1992 (Water Convention).
  • The UNWC contains a direct reference to floods, which covers harmful conditions and emergency situations.
  • In the absence of any mechanism, India relies on its memorandum of understanding (MoU) with China in 2013 with a view to sharing hydrological information during the flood season (June to September).
bay of bengal
bay of bengal
map of bay of bengal
map of bay of bengal
  • The Bay of Bengal (the Bay) is experiencing an increase in geo-economic, geopolitical, and geo-cultural activity.
  • Therefore, it is noteworthy that at the fourth BIMSTEC summit, Prime Minister Narendra Modi announced the opening of the Centre for Bay of Bengal Studies (CBS) at Nalanda University.
  • CBS will offer collaborations in areas such as geo-economics and geopolitics, ecology, trade and connectivity, maritime security, maritime law, cultural heritage, and blue economy to generate opportunities for the Bay region.
  • The Bay also provides an opportunity for greater regional cooperation in the environmentally friendly exploration of marine and energy resources. The Bay has a biodiverse marine environment.
Automation
Automation
  • ATM usage, mobile and online transactions, and fewer new bank branches have led to reduced recruitment
Anil Chauhan new CDS
Anil Chauhan new CDS

About CDS:

  • He will be the single-point military adviser to the government as suggested by the Kargil Review Committee in 1999.
  • He will be a Four-star General.
  • CDS acts as the permanent Chairman of the Chiefs of Staff Committee which will also have three service chiefs as members.
  • His core function will be to foster greater operational synergy between the three service branches of the Indian military and keep inter-service frictions to a minimum.
  • In June, the government amended the Service Rules of the Army, Navy and Air Force allowing retired Service Chiefs and three-star rank officers eligible for consideration for the country’s top military post.
  • However, with an age limit of 62 years on the date of appointment, retired Service Chiefs were largely ruled out especially so for the present consideration.

The Hindu Newspaper Analysis 30 September 2022

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