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The Hindu Newspaper Analysis 27 September 2022

 

The Hindu Newspaper Analysis for UPSC

NacIC System
NacIC System

The Hindu Newspaper Analysis 26 September 2022

  • The Union government is pushing tech giants to make smartphones compatible with its home-grown navigation system within months, worrying the likes of Samsung, Xiaomi and Apple who fear elevated costs and disruptions as the move requires hardware changes, according to two industry sources and government documents seen by Reuters.

Navigation with Indian Constellation (NavIC) Technology

  • An autonomous regional satellite navigation system,also known as Indian Regional Navigation Satellite System (IRNSS), is  developed by ISRO.
  • It has been designed to provide accurate position information service to users in India as well as the region extending up to 1500 km from its boundary.
  • It will provide two types of services:
    • Standard Positioning Service (SPS): provided to all the users.
    • Restricted Service (RS) : It is an encrypted service provided only to the authorised users.
  • The IRNSS System is expected to provide a position accuracy of better than 20 m in the primary service area.
  • Presently, it consists of 7 active satellites located at a distance of approximately 36,000 Km.
    • 3 satellites are in Geostationary Orbit (GEO).
    • 4 satellites are in inclined Geosynchronous Orbit (GSO).
  • The United States Global Positioning System (GPS) – World’s most used GPS system, operational from 1978. Constellation of 32 satellites.
  • Russian GLONASS – It provides global coverage. It has a total of 26 satellites.
  • European Union Galileo – Became operational in 2016, with a constellation of 30 satellites.
  • Chinese BeiDou – Currently it provides regional coverage of the Asia- Pacific region, plans to provide global coverage by 2020. It has a total of 35 satellites.
  • Japanese Quasi-Zenith Satellite System (QZSS) – It is a regional satellite system covering Japan and the Asia-Oceania region. It has a total of 4 satellites, 7 are planned.
  • India (IRNSS-NAVIC)

Putting Power Back
Putting Power Back
  • Understandably, democracy is more in crisis than ever before, with the onset of centralisation of power, with a foreign policy defying public opinion, with the media centralised, and with corporate control of the economy tighter than ever.
  • It is our responsibility to publicise the anti-democratic actions of the state as much as we can because the political leaders will not do it.
  • “2022 Resilient Democracies Statement” — signed recently by the G7 and four invited guests — conscious of the decline in the institution of democracy.
Pitching India
Pitching India
  • Earlier this month, the Dhauladhar ranges in the Himalayas were the setting for a gathering of State Tourism Ministers — a first-of-its-kind meeting to discuss, debate and deliberate on modes and mechanisms to develop tourism in India.
  • The Ministers brainstormed for three days, co-developing ‘The Dharamshala Declaration’ by drawing inspiration from Prime Minister Narendra Modi’s ‘Whole of Government’ approach, which enables the breaking down of silos and encouraging synergies across various government corridors.
  • On the occasion of World Tourism Day (it is held on September 27), I am happy to share this collective vision. ‘The Dharamshala Declaration’ aims to recognise India’s role in contributing towards global tourism as well as focusing on recovery by also promoting domestic tourism — which has been overlooked for long.
Home and Abroad
Home and Abroad
  • If India is to unite polarised nations, it must bring divisive forces under control
  • Delivering India’s statement at the United Nations General Assembly (UNGA) this year, External Affairs Minister S. Jaishankar spoke of several challenges in India’s past, present and future, with a special emphasis on the immediate “shocks” arising from the war in Ukraine, the COVID-19 pandemic, climate change, and terrorism.
  • Jaishankar called a “bridge” between nations polarised by bitter divides. It is a goal which will only be achievable if New Delhi is able to play a similarly uniting role in its own neighbourhood, and bring polarising and divisive forces within India under control.
Samarkand
Samarkand
  • Russia was clearly in the dock for its invasion of Ukraine, but the former Soviet Republics were not in a position to call a spade a spade. China was vulnerable because of the deal it had struck with Russia on Taiwan in return for a pledge to support Russia in its war with Ukraine.
  • The Quad may well be the forum that will enable India to protect its interests in the Indo-Pacific, and the SCO may have been a dress rehearsal for what may eventually emerge.
landslides
landslides
RTI Portal
RTI Portal
  • The court struck down the National Judicial Appointments Commission (NJAC) Act and the 99th Constitutional Amendment in 2015.
  • court invite public opinion on ways to improve the opaque Collegium system of judicial appointments. It received over 11,500 views from the public. The ensuing months saw the Collegium publish its resolutions on the Supreme Court website, a practice that continues still.
  • Then came the unprecedented press conference held by four senior-most judges on January 12, 2018 to complain about the “selective” allocation of sensitive cases by successive Chief Justices of India. This led to the publication of the first-ever “subject-wise roster” for allocation of cases a month later.
  • In 2019, a Constitution Bench settled the issue, declaring that the Office of the Chief Justice of India was a ‘public authority’ under the RTI Act. Justice Sanjiv Khanna wrote in the judgment that “transparency and accountability go hand-in-hand”.
semiconductor industry
semiconductor industry
  • Semiconductors are the thumbnail-sized building blocks of almost every modern electronic device. The semiconductor chip-making process is complex and highly exact, having multiple steps in the supply chain such as designing software for chips and patenting them through core Intellectual Property (IP) rights.
  • According to the Electronics and IT Ministry, semiconductor demand in India would increase to $70-$80 billion by 2026 with the growing demand for digital devices and electronic products.
  • In December 2021, India announced its roughly $10 billion dollar production-linked incentive (PLI) scheme to encourage semiconductor and display manufacturing in the country. It also announced fiscal support for a design-linked initiative (DLI) scheme to drive global and domestic investment related to design software, IP rights etc.
  • In the previous version of the scheme, the Centre was offering to fund 30% of the project cost for 45nm to 65nm chip production, 40% for 28nm to 45nm, and 50% or half of the funding for chips 28nm or below. The modified scheme provides uniform 50% fiscal support for all nodes.
  • So far, Vedanta and Taiwanese chipmaker Foxconn have signed an MoU to set up a ₹1,54,000 crore semiconductor plant in Gujarat.
  • Chip-making also requires gallons of ultrapure water in a single day, which experts say, could be a task for the government to provide to factories, compounded also by the drought conditions which often prevail in large parts of the country.

The Hindu Newspaper Analysis 28 September 2022

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