The Hindu Newspaper Analysis for UPSC
- Prime Minister Narendra Modi on Monday said a nation like India with such a glorious history must be full of self-confidence and self-respect, but lamented that concocted narratives taught till now had created a sense of inferiority in the country.
- Modi said there was a need to get free from the narrow interpretation of the past to move forward.
- “That is why the country has taken the pledge of removing all traces of slave mentality in the Azadi ka Amrit Kaal,” he said at the celebration of first Veer Bal Divas, which commemorates the martyrdom of the sons of Guru Gobind Singh, Sahibzadas Baba Zorawar Singh and Baba Fateh Singh.
- Last January, the Prime Minister announced that December 26 would be observed as Veer Bal Divas.
- Every December, Sikhs mark the supreme sacrifice made by the children and mother of the 10th Guru, Gobind Singh ji. Shaheedi Jor Mela or Shaheedi Sabha is observed at Fatehgarh Sahib, which is attended by lakhs of people.
- In January this year, the Centre announced that December 26 would be observed as ‘Veer Bal Diwas’ to mark the martyrdom of Guru Gobind Singh’s younger sons, Sahibzada Zorawar Singh (9) and Sahibzada Fateh Singh (7).
- The two Sahibzade were killed in 1704, in events sparked by the attack on Anandpur Sahib by the armies of the Mughals and the hill kings of present-day Himachal Pradesh.
- Guru Gobind Singh’s mother Mata Gujari Ji, and two other sons, Sahibzaada Ajit Singh Ji (18) and Sahibzaada Jujhar Singh Ji (14), were also martyred within a week.
About Guru Gobind Singh:
- He was the 10th Sikh guru.
- He was born at Patna, Bihar, India, on December 22, 1666. His birthday sometimes falls either in December or January or even both months in the Gregorian calendar. The annual celebration of the Guru’s birthday is based on the Nanakshahi calendar.
- He became the Sikh guru at the age of nine, following the demise of father, Guru Tegh Bahadur, the ninth Sikh Guru.
- He is known for his significant contributions to the Sikh religion, including the introduction of the turban to cover hair.
- He also founded the principles of Khalsa or the Five ‘K’s.
- He is also responsible for establishing the highest order in the Sikh community.
- He fought against the Mughals later in the battle of Muktsar in 1705.
- Guru Gobind Singh was killed by a Mughal assassin in 1708, a year after the death of Aurangzeb.
- He named Guru Granth Sahib, the religious text of the Khalsas and the Sikhs, as the next Guru.
- A “Create in India” campaign with an exclusive focus on content creation; an international platform for animation, visual effects, gaming and comics (AVGC) aimed at attracting foreign direct investment, co-production treaties and innovation in collaboration with international counterparts; national and regional centres of excellence for skill development; and leveraging the National Education Policy to develop creative thinking at school level.
- These are among the recommendations in the report of a task force on AVGC promotion, submitted to the Union government. The task force has proposed a national AVGC-Extended Reality Mission with a budget outlay to be created for the integrated promotion and growth of the sector.
- President Droupadi Murmu inaugurated the ‘PRASAD’ project at the tourism facilitation centre in the pilgrim town of Srisailam in Andhra Pradesh on Monday.
- She was accompanied by Telangana Governor Tamilisai Soundararajan.
- The hill town will get a pilgrim complex, amenities centres at Hatakeswaram and Sikhareswaram, a renovated Pushkarini, aesthetic illumination at the temple, laying of Krishnaveni Road from the bus station to Pathalaganga, an amphitheatre, a sound-and-light show, digital intervention, parking areas, a toilet complex, souvenir shops, food courts, ATM and banking services with a total outlay of ₹48.03 crore under the Pilgrimage Rejuvenation and Spiritual, Heritage Augmentation Drive (PRASAD).
- Murmu also visited Shri Chhatrapati Shivaji Spoorthi Kendram, where she was accorded a ceremonial reception with a Chenchu tribal dance.
- The ‘National Mission on Pilgrimage Rejuvenation and Spiritual Augmentation Drive’ (PRASAD) was launched by the Ministry of Tourism in the year 2014-15 with the objective of holistic development of identified pilgrimage destinations.
- The name of the scheme was changed from PRASAD to “National Mission on Pilgrimage Rejuvenation and Spiritual, Heritage Augmentation Drive (PRASHAD)” in October 2017.
- After the discontinuation of the HRIDAY scheme of the Ministry of Housing and Urban Development, the development of Heritage destinations was included in the PRASAD Scheme, changing it to PRASHAD.
- The Chenchus are Scheduled Tribe in the Indian states of Andhra Pradesh, Telangana, Karnataka, and Odisha. Many Chenchus live in the dense Nallamala forest of Andhra Pradesh.
- They are an aboriginal tribe whose traditional way of life has been based on hunting and gathering.
- The Chenchus speak the Chenchu language, a member of the Dravidian language family.
- Chenchu’s relationship with non-tribal people has been largely symbiotic.
- When Bilkis Bano, sole survivor of a horrific gang-rape and mass murder in 2002, asked the Supreme Court of India to review its May 2022 judgment which directed the Government of Gujarat to consider the early release of one of those convicted of these monstrous crimes, it was an opportunity for the Court to redress an egregious error.
- The conviction and sentence of Radheshyam and his co-convicts were confirmed by a Division Bench of the Bombay High Court on May 5, 2017, and this judgment in turn was confirmed by the Supreme Court on July 10, 2017.
- By its judgment of May 13, 2022 the top court allowed Radheshyam’s writ petition, set aside an Order of the Gujarat High Court which had rejected the same relief sought by the convicted prisoner in that court, and directed the Government of Gujarat to consider the prisoner’s application for remission and premature release in accordance with a now-defunct policy dated July 9, 1992.
- Strangely, the top court ignored a binding nine-judge Constitution Bench decision in Naresh Shridhar Mirajkar (1966) and another five-judge Constitution Bench in Triveniben (1989), which held that a judgment of a court can never be challenged in a writ petition under Article 32.
- The Court also brushed aside another Constitution Bench decision in Union of India vs V. Sriharan (judgment in 2015) in which the majority in paragraph 180, and the minority concurring on this aspect in paragraph 212, held that if an offence is committed in State A, but the trial takes place and sentence is passed in State B, it is the government of the latter alone which is the appropriate government.
- Indeed, as early as in 1976, the Court had in Madhya Pradesh vs Ratan Singh decided to make “an authoritative decision on the important principle involved in the case”, and held that “it is the State where the accused was convicted which alone has the power to grant remissions of the sentence”. The Court further held that “there can be no shadow of doubt that the appropriate Government mentioned in sub-section (1) and sub-section (2) of Section 401 of the Code of Criminal Procedure refers to the Government of the State where the accused was convicted”. And, finally, the Court held in that judgment that Section 432(7) of the new Code of Criminal Procedure, 1973 “has put the matter completely beyond any controversy”…..”and has made the position absolutely clear”.
- In terms of size, aircraft carriers can be classified as light, medium and large/super-carriers. Light carriers can carry up to 25 aircraft, the medium-sized ones around 30 to 50 aircraft, while the large/super-carriers can carry over 90 aircraft.
- In terms of role, they can be categorised as fleet, escort, air defence, amphibious assault and anti-submarine warfare (helicopter) carriers.
- In terms of the methodology used to launch and recover aircraft, they can be categorised as Catapult Assisted Take-Off But Arrested Recovery (CATOBAR), Short Take-off But Arrested Recovery (STOBAR), and vertical/short take-off and landing (V/STOL) carriers.
- India’s first aircraft carrier, INS Vikrant (British-built), predecessor to INS Vikrant (IAC-1), was a 19,000-tonne CATOBAR-type light carrier designed for fleet air defence.
- It could carry between 21 to 23 aircraft (including helicopters). Its replacement, INS Viraat (British-built), at 28,000 tonnes, was a V/STOL-type light fleet air defence carrier, with an air wing of 26 to 30 aircraft and helicopters.
- Notably, its Sea Harrier aircraft also possessed dedicated land attack capability. INS Vikramaditya (Russian-built), at 45,000 tonnes, is a medium-sized STOBAR-type aircraft carrier, capable of both fleet air defence and land attack, carrying up to 30 aircraft and helicopters.
- INS Vikrant IAC-1) is almost similar in size, classification, role and capability to INS Vikramaditya.
- Ambergris or whale vomit, which is produced by the digestive system of sperm whales and is used in luxury perfumery, is a banned substance in India. A kilo of Ambergris is worth ₹1 crore. In FY21-22, 22.5 kgs of Ambergris were seized by officials.
- Seahorses are said to have anti-inflammatory qualities and are used in traditional Chinese medicine. Indian star tortoises are smuggled into the country and sold as exotic pets.
- The practice of civil society organisations using representative visuals for fundraising activities concerning development issues such as malnutrition now faces new scrutiny, with the National Commission for Protection of Child Rights (NCPCR) issuing a directive to non-governmental organisations (NGO) not to depict vulnerable children.
- A 2013 campaign by a U.K.-based NGO, Save the Children, titled “Khushi”, featured a 20-month-old baby lying on a hospital bed at a malnutrition treatment centre in Tonk, Rajasthan. The baby was videographed as a helpless and needy child, with the camera zooming into a close-up of her face and eyes as she looks morosely into it.
- The narrator describes her as a malnourished child in need of help and makes an ardent appeal: “Please, will you help? Please, donate ₹500 a month and make a difference.”
- India’s ranking in Global Hunger Index 2022 is 107 (slipped from the 2021 index of 101) out of 121 countries. The index is jointly released by Concern Worldwide and Welthungerhilfe every October.
National Commission for Protection of Child Rights
- NCPCR is a statutory body set up in March 2007 under the Commissions for Protection of Child Rights (CPCR) Act, 2005.
- It is under the administrative control of the Ministry of Women & Child Development.
- The Commission’s mandate is to ensure that all laws, policies, programmes, and administrative mechanisms are in consonance with the child rights perspective as enshrined in the Constitution of India and also the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child.
- It inquires into complaints relating to a child’s right to free and compulsory education under the Right to Education Act, 2009.
- It monitors the implementation of Protection of Children from Sexual Offences (POCSO) Act, 2012.
- Digital capture of the attendance of workers employed under the Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme (MGNREGS) has been made universal by the Centre from January 1.
- The Union government, arguing for transparency and accountability in May 2021, had started a pilot project to capture attendance via a mobile application, the National Mobile Monitoring System (NMMS).
- From May 16, 2022 capturing attendance via the app was made compulsory for all worksites with 20 or more workers. This required uploading two time-stamped and geotagged photographs of the workers.
- The job fell on the mates/supervisors, who are paid only marginally more than the unskilled workers. There were widespread complaints over the lack of technical support, the necessity to own a smartphone, paying for an Internet connection, and issues with erratic Internet connectivity.
- In the latest order, dated December 23, the Ministry has ordered that digitally capturing attendance is now mandatory for all worksites, regardless of the number of workers engaged, and will be applicable from January 1, 2023.
- MGNREGA is one of the largest work guarantee programmes in the world which was launched in 2005.
- The primary objective of the scheme is to guarantee 100 days of employment in every financial year to adult members of any rural household willing to do public work-related unskilled manual work.
- Unlike earlier employment guarantee schemes, MGNREGA aims at addressing the causes of chronic poverty through a rights-based framework.
- At least one-third of beneficiaries have to be women.
- Wages must be paid according to the statutory minimum wages specified for agricultural labourers in the state under the Minimum Wages Act, 1948.
Q) While burning hydrocarbon fuels, if we see a blue flame it means that the fuel is
- burning completely
- made of saturated hydrocarbons
- made of unsaturated hydrocarbons
हाइड्रोकार्बन ईंधन को जलाते समय अगर हमें नीली लौ दिखाई दे तो इसका मतलब है कि ईंधन है
- पूरी तरह से जल रहा है
- संतृप्त हाइड्रोकार्बन से बना है
- असंतृप्त हाइड्रोकार्बन से बना है
- In saturated hydrocarbons complete combustion of the fuel takes place but in the unsaturated hydrocarbons incomplete combustion takes place.
- Hence saturated hydrocarbons give a blue flame while unsaturated hydrocarbons burn with a sooty flame.
Q) Aggregate demand is an important economic indicator. It can be increased by
- More investments
- Increasing bank rate by RBI
- Higher Taxation
Select the correct answer code:
- 1 only
- 1, 2
- 1, 3
- 2, 3
कुल मांग एक महत्वपूर्ण आर्थिक संकेतक है। द्वारा बढ़ाया जा सकता है
- अधिक निवेश
- आरबीआई द्वारा बैंक दर बढ़ाना
- उच्च कराधान
सही उत्तर कूट का चयन करें:
- केवल 1
- 1, 2
- 1, 3
- 2, 3
- Aggregate demand is the total demand for final goods and services in an economy at a given time.
- Investment creates infrastructure, generates demand for raw material, labor, provides employment and adds to the productive capacity of the economy. It is one of the most potent factors in increasing Aggregate demand (AD).
- The government has some ability to impact AD. It can give fiscal stimulus or increase taxes in order to influence how consumers spend or save. An expansionary fiscal policy (higher spending, lower taxes) causes AD to increase, while a contractionary monetary policy (e.g. high bank rates) causes AD to decrease.
Q) Consider the following statements about Goods and Services Tax (GST):
- It is an indirect tax
- It is imposed on both manufacturers and sellers of goods, as well as suppliers of services.
- For tax collection, it is divided into four tax slabs
Which of the statements given above is/are correct?
- 1 and 2 only
- 2 and 3 only
- 1 and 3 only
- 1, 2 and 3
वस्तु एवं सेवा कर (जीएसटी) के बारे में निम्नलिखित कथनों पर विचार करें:
- यह एक अप्रत्यक्ष कर है
- यह माल के निर्माताओं और विक्रेताओं, साथ ही सेवाओं के आपूर्तिकर्ताओं दोनों पर लगाया जाता है।
- टैक्स कलेक्शन के लिए इसे चार टैक्स स्लैब में बांटा गया है
ऊपर दिए गए कथनों में से कौन सा/से सही है/हैं?
- केवल 1 और 2
- केवल 2 और 3
- केवल 1 और 3
- 1, 2 और 3
Explanation:About Goods and Services Tax (GST):
- It is an indirect tax (a tax which is not directly paid by customers to the government) that came into effect on July 1, 2017, as a result of the 101st Amendment to the Indian Constitution.
- It has replaced several indirect taxes in the country, including service taxes, VAT, excise, etc.
- It is imposed on both manufacturers and sellers of goods, as well as suppliers of services.
- For tax collection, it is divided into five tax slabs – 0%, 5%, 12%, 18%, and 28%.
Q) Consider the following statements regarding Partition of Bengal, 1905.
- Partition of Bengal was carried out by the British viceroy in India, Lord Curzon.
- New provinces of East Bengal and Assam were created after the partition of Bengal.
Which of the above statements is/are correct?
- 1 only
- 2 only
- Both 1 and 2
- Neither 1 nor 2
1905 के बंगाल विभाजन के संबंध में निम्नलिखित कथनों पर विचार करें।
- भारत में ब्रिटिश वायसराय लॉर्ड कर्जन द्वारा बंगाल का विभाजन किया गया था।
- बंगाल के विभाजन के बाद पूर्वी बंगाल और असम के नए प्रांत बनाए गए।
उपरोक्त कथनों में से कौन-सा/से सही है/हैं?
- केवल 1
- केवल 2
- 1 और 2 दोनों
- न तो 1 और न ही 2
The Partition of Bengal into two provinces was effected in July 1905.
- The new province of Eastern Bengal and Assam included the whole of Assam and the Dacca, Rajshahi and Chittagong divisions of Bengal with headquarters at Dacca.
- Though Curzon justified his action on administrative lines, partition divided the Hindus and Muslims in Bengal. This led to the anti-partition agitation all over the country.
- This had also intensified the National Movement leading to the Swadeshi movement.
- Rithala is a place in Delhi, the movement or the riots in Rithala that happened between 1911- 1932 cannot be related to the Swadeshi movement.
Q) Gandhiji represented the Indian National Congress in which of these Round Table Conferences?
- First Round Table Conference, 1930-31
- Second Round Table Conference, 1931
- Third Round Table Conference, 1932
- None of the above
इनमें से किस गोलमेज सम्मेलन में गांधीजी ने भारतीय राष्ट्रीय कांग्रेस का प्रतिनिधित्व किया था?
- प्रथम गोलमेज सम्मेलन, 1930-31
- दूसरा गोलमेज सम्मेलन, 1931
- तीसरा गोलमेज सम्मेलन, 1932
- उपरोक्त में से कोई नहीं
- The three Round Table Conferences of 1930–32 were a series of conferences organized by the British Government and Indian national congress was participant to discuss constitutional reforms in India. These started in November 1930 and ended in December 1932.
- They were conducted as per the recommendation of Jinnah to Viceroy Lord Irwin and Prime Minister Ramsay MacDonald, and by the report submitted by the Simon Commission in May 1930. Demands for swaraj, or self-rule, in India had been growing increasingly strong.
- The Congress had boycotted the first conference.
- A settlement between Mahatma Gandhi and Viceroy Lord Irwin known as the Gandhi–Irwin Pact was reached and Gandhi was appointed as the sole representative of the Congress to the second Round Table Conference.
Mains Practice Question:
Q) Explain how e-governance can facilitate economic inclusiveness and bring social transformation in India. (250 words)
स्पष्ट करें कि ई-गवर्नेंस किस प्रकार आर्थिक समावेशन को सुगम बना सकता है और भारत में सामाजिक परिवर्तन ला सकता है। (250 शब्द)