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The Hindu Newspaper Analysis 25 November 2022

 

The Hindu Newspaper Analysis for UPSC

appointment of Arun Goel as Election Commissioner
appointment of Arun Goel as Election Commissioner

The Hindu Newspaper Analysis 24 November 2022

  • The Supreme Court, after inspecting official files on Thursday, said that the appointment of Arun Goel as Election Commissioner was done with “lightning speed”, the procedure taking less than 24 hours from start to finish on November 18.
  • A Constitution Bench, led by Justice K.M. Joseph, had asked Attorney-General R. Venkataramani on Wednesday to produce the files concerning Mr. Goel’s appointment after petitioners alleged that it was “hurriedly” done. In fact, the appointment was made the very next day after the court started examining the need to insulate the Election Commission from political influence by setting up a “neutral and independent mechanism” for appointment of Election Commissioners.
  • Advocate Prashant Bhushan, for a petitioner, said Mr. Goel was a secretary in the government on Friday. He took voluntary retirement that day and was appointed an Election Commissioner on Saturday and took charge on Monday.

The Hindu Editorial Today

India’s exports may be dented by the global slowdown
India’s exports may be dented by the global slowdown
  • The outlook for India’s exports may be dented by the global slowdown driven by the confluence of stubbornly high inflation, rising borrowing costs and geopolitical tensions, but “resilient” domestic demand and a “re-invigorated” investment cycle will push the economy’s growth and spark a rebound in jobs in the coming months, the Finance Ministry said on Thursday.
  • The recent inflation pressures had been driven more by local factors, including higher food prices, than imported reasons, the Ministry said in its monthly review of the economy.
progress in reducing the incidence of child marriage
progress in reducing the incidence of child marriage
  • India has made substantial progress in reducing the incidence of child marriage over the years, but the economic hardship induced by the COVID-19 pandemic is likely to roll back the gains made so far.
  • In the desert State, where the social malaise is culturally endemic, the recent alleged sale of girls on stamp paper to settle debts shows how the girl child is vulnerable in families that see them as a means to tide over their financial woes, reports Sreeparna Chakrabarty
  • Though the country has seen a steady decline in the prevalence of the practice from 47.4% in 2005 to 23.3% in 2021, the United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA) has warned that pandemic-induced economic hardship could roll back the gains made so far.

Prevalence of child marriage in India

  • NFHS-5 data show that about 25% of women aged 18-29 years married before the legal marriageable age of 18.
  • Marginal decline: The proportion has declined only marginally from NFHS-4 (28%).
  • Higher in rural India: Expectedly, the prevalence is higher in rural than urban India (28% and 17%, respectively).
  • West Bengal has the highest prevalence (42%), followed by Bihar and Tripura (40% each).
  • Oddly, the decline in child marriage has been paltry at best in these high-prevalence States.
  • At the other end of the spectrum are Goa, Himachal Pradesh and Kerala (6% to 7%).
  • 39% of child marriages in India take place among Adivasis and Dalits.
  • The share of advantaged social groups is 17% and the remaining share is of Other Backward Classes.
Top or OTT
Top or OTT
  • The inclusion of Over The Top or OTT (Communication Services) within the ambit of the draft Indian Telecommunication Bill, 2022 that was unveiled recently for public comments, is a feature that has drawn much attention and comment.
  • The main argument behind its inclusion is the principle of “same service, same rules”.
  • However, this is completely erroneous. Same service means that as a user, I should be able to substitute one for the other at my own volition.
  • OTT communication services are applications or value-added communication services that ride on the basic communication services that telcos provide.
  • More worrisome is that the inflow of venture capital funding to OTTs would be severely discouraged. It is well nigh impossible to distinguish an OTT communication service from any other OTT platform because every OTT platform such as Flipkart, Ola, MakeMyTrip does incorporate an element of messaging. How does one make a distinction between an OTT communication service provider and any other OTT platform or service that includes communication services?
five villagers from Meghalaya and an Assam forest guard were killed
five villagers from Meghalaya and an Assam forest guard were killed
States carved out of it — Arunachal Pradesh, Nagaland, Meghalaya and Mizoram.
States carved out of it — Arunachal Pradesh, Nagaland, Meghalaya and Mizoram.
  • On November 22, five villagers from Meghalaya and an Assam forest guard were killed and two others were seriously injured in a firing incident along the boundary between the two States.
  • Assam and Meghalaya have a five-decade old boundary dispute. Meghalaya, carved out of Assam as an autonomous region in 1970, became a full-fledged State in 1972. In March, Assam and Meghalaya resolved the boundary dispute at six out of total 12 such locations along their 884.9 km boundary, and the next round of talks was to take place soon. Though the latest flare-up did not arise out of this dispute, it happened along a disputed border stretch.
  • Assam has boundary disputes at various points in time with the States carved out of it — Arunachal Pradesh, Nagaland, Meghalaya and Mizoram.
loss and damage fund
loss and damage fund
  • Nearly 200 countries pledged to set up a ‘loss and damage fund’ to help vulnerable countries affected by climate change. Developing countries have welcomed this development, which has been a long-time demand. Developed nations, however, are not satisfied with the level of commitment that poor countries have shown towards cutting down greenhouse gas emissions and phasing out fossil fuels.
  • As temperatures rise, the cost of not addressing climate change is likely to rise.
  • We need roads, housing, hospitals, schools, industries, etc. Is this all possible with renewable energy? No, it is difficult.
  • The developing world does not have the luxury of using fossil fuels in an unconstrained manner, which the developed world has had.
Gulf of Oman
Gulf of Oman
port of Chabahar is located in South eastern Iran in the Gulf of Oman
port of Chabahar is located in South eastern Iran in the Gulf of Oman
  • The port of Chabahar is located in South eastern Iran in the Gulf of Oman.  It is the only Iranian port with direct access to the ocean.
  • It is considered a gateway to golden opportunities for trade by India, Iran and Afghanistan with Central Asian countries.
  • The Chabahar port actually contains two separate ports called Shahid Kalantari and Shahid Beheshti. Indian firm India Ports Global Limited took over operations at the Shaheed Beheshti Port.
unemployment rate in urban areas
unemployment rate in urban areas

The unemployment rate in urban areas for persons above the age of 15 eased to 7.2% in July-September from 9.8% a year ago and 7.6% in the previous quarter, according to the Periodic Labour Force Survey (PLFS) released by the National Statistical Office (NSO) here on Thursday.

  • The worker population ratio is defined as the ratio of a country’s working population to its population multiplied by 100. Symbolically,
  • Worker population ratio = Total number of Workers / Total Population ×100
  • If the ratio is higher, it means that the engagement of people is greater.
  • The labour force participation rate (LFPR), defined as the percentage of persons in labour force who are working or seeking or available for work in the population.
  • The unemployment rate was 6.6% for men and 9.4% for women. The rate was 9.3% and 11.6%, respectively, in July-September 2021.
  • The unemployment ratio is defined as the percentage of persons unemployed among the persons in the labour force.

Q) Arittapatti and Meenakshipuram Villages is located in:

  1. Kerala
  2. Tamil Nadu
  3. Odisha
  4. None of the above

अरितापट्टी और मीनाक्षीपुरम गांव स्थित हैं:

  1. केरल
  2. तमिलनाडु
  3. ओडिशा
  4. उपरोक्त में से कोई नहीं

Explanation :
The Tamil Nadu government recently issued a notification declaring Arittapatti and Meenakshipuram villages in Madurai district the first biodiversity heritage site in the State.

  • It aims to prevent the loss of biodiversity and preserve the cultural and architectural heritage, the government, as recommended by the Tamil Nadu Biodiversity Board, has declared Arittapatti a biodiversity heritage site.
  • The site, comprising 139.63 hectares in Arittapatti village (in Melur taluk) and 53.58 hectares in Meenakshipuram village (Madurai East taluk), will be known as the Arittapatti Biodiversity Heritage Site.
  • Arittapatti, known for its ecological and historical significance, houses around 250 species of birds, including three important raptors — Laggar Falcon (Falco jugger), Shaheen Falcon (Falco peregrinus) and Bonelli’s Eagle (Aquila fasciata).
  • It is also home to wildlife such as the Indian Pangolin (Manis crassicaudata), Python (Python molurus) and Slender Loris (Loris spp).
  • The area is surrounded by a chain of seven hillocks or inselbergs, that serve as a watershed, charging “72 lakes, 200 natural springs and three check-dams”.
  • The Anaikondan tank, built during the reign of the Pandiyan kings in the 16th century, is one of them.
  • The site also features various megalithic structures, Tamil Brahmi Inscriptions, Jain Beds and 2200-year-old rock-cut temples adding to its historical value.

Q) With reference to the Lachit Borphukan, consider the following statements:

  1. Lachit Borphukan was a commander and councillor in the Ahom Kingdom.
  2. The Ahom Dynasty was founded in 1228 in Assam’s Brahmaputra Valley.

Which of the above statements is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

लचित बोरफुकन के संदर्भ में निम्नलिखित कथनों पर विचार कीजिये:

  1. लचित बोरफुकन अहोम साम्राज्य में सेनापति और पार्षद थे।
  2. अहोम राजवंश की स्थापना 1228 में असम की ब्रह्मपुत्र घाटी में हुई थी।

उपरोक्त कथनों में से कौन-सा/से सही है/हैं?

  1. केवल 1
  2. केवल 2
  3. 1 और 2 दोनों
  4. न तो 1 और न ही 2

Explanation :

The three day-long celebration of 400th birth anniversary of Ahom General Lachit Barphukan will begin in New Delhi on November 23, 2022.

  • Lachit Borphukan was a commander and councillor in the Ahom Kingdom.
  • The Ahom Kingdom resisted the invasion of the Mughal Empire several times and reigned in present-day Assam for over 600 years.
  • The Ahom Dynasty was founded in 1228 in Assam’s Brahmaputra Valley.
  • The first King of the Ahom Kingdom was Chaolung Sukaphaa, who crossed the Patkai mountainous region to reach the Brahmaputra valley.
  • In 1615, the Ahom Dynasty engaged in its first significant conflict with the Mughal Empire.
  • The Mughals conquered the Ahom capital of Garhgaon in 1662 but were defeated in later battles.
  • Finally, during the battle of Saraighat in 1671, the Ahoms led by Lachit Borphukan successfully defeated the Mughals.
  • Borphukan is mainly known for his leadership in this battle. By 1682, the Mughal influence in the region was completely eradicated.

Q) Consider the following statements:

  1. The GoI had notified the Electoral Bond Scheme in 2018.
  2. Only political parties that have secured no less than ten per cent votes in the last Lok Sabha elections are eligible to receive electoral bonds.

Which of the above statements is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

निम्नलिखित कथनों पर विचार करें:

  1. भारत सरकार ने 2018 में चुनावी बांड योजना को अधिसूचित किया था।
  2. केवल वे राजनीतिक दल जिन्होंने पिछले लोकसभा चुनाव में कम से कम दस प्रतिशत वोट प्राप्त किए हैं, चुनावी बॉन्ड प्राप्त करने के पात्र हैं।

उपरोक्त कथनों में से कौन-सा/से सही है/हैं?

  1. केवल 1
  2. केवल 2
  3. 1 और 2 दोनों
  4. न तो 1 और न ही 2

Explanation:

  • The government had notified the Electoral Bond Scheme in 2018.
  • It was touted as an alternative to cash donations and to ensure transparency in political funding.
  • As per the provisions of the scheme, electoral bonds may be purchased by an Indian citizen or a company incorporated or established in India.
  • Only political parties registered under Section 29A of the Representation of the Peoples Act, 1951 and has secured no less than one per cent votes in the last Lok Sabha elections are eligible to receive electoral bonds.

Q) Gutti Koya Tribals is mainly located in:

  1. Gujarat
  2. Sikkim
  3. Nagaland
  4. None of the above

गुट्टी कोया आदिवासी मुख्य रूप से स्थित हैं:

  1. गुजरात
  2. सिक्किम
  3. नागालैंड
  4. उपरोक्त में से कोई नहीं

Explanation :

A Forest Range Officer (FRO) was brutally killed allegedly by a group of Gutti Koya Adivasis with axes and sickles over a “podu land” issue in Errabodu forest area in Chandrugonda mandal of Telangana’s Bhadradri Kothagudem district.

  • The Koya population is concentrated in Telangana, Andhra Pradesh, Chhattisgarh and Odisha.
  • The Koyas speak the Koya language, which is a Dravidian language.
  • Most important fair celebrated by Koyas is the Sammakka Saralamma Jatra once in two years on full moon day of the Magha Masam (January or February) at Medaram village in Mulug taluk of Warangal district.

Podu:

  • Podu is a form of shifting cultivation, as practiced by various tribal groups in forest areas has for long been an economical survival versus environmental sustenance issue.

Q) The annual Status of Education Report (ASER) is published by

  1. Oxfam India
  2. Save the Children
  3. World Vision
  4. Pratham

शिक्षा रिपोर्ट की वार्षिक स्थिति (ASER) किसके द्वारा प्रकाशित की जाती है

  1. ऑक्सफैम इंडिया
  2. बच्चों को बचाओ
  3. विश्व दृष्टि
  4. प्रथम

Explanation:

  • 2021 award has been given to NGO Pratham, working in the field of education
  • The award carries a monetary award of Rs 25 lakh along with a citation and is awarded annually by the Indira Gandhi Memorial Trust to individuals and organizations
  • The annual Status of Education Report (ASER) is biennially published by the NGO Pratham, since 2005.

Mains Practice Question:

Q) How do subsidies affect the cropping pattern, crop diversity and economy of farmers? What is the significance of crop insurance, minimum support price and food processing for small and marginal farmers? (2017)

सब्सिडी किस प्रकार फसल पैटर्न, फसल विविधता और किसानों की अर्थव्यवस्था को प्रभावित करती है? छोटे और सीमांत किसानों के लिए फसल बीमा, न्यूनतम समर्थन मूल्य और खाद्य प्रसंस्करण का क्या महत्व है? (2017)

Introduction:

  • Government subsidizes agricultural inputs in an attempt to keep farm costs low and production high. There are various subsidies available to farmers in terms of cheap input credit, seeds and fertilizers, subsidized electricity and irrigation etc. Agriculture subsidies always have some impact on various activities of agriculture.

Body:

  • Cropping pattern: Crop selection gets distorted in favour of those crops which have high share of subsidies or attract large volume of subsidies. For example cheap electricity and irrigation subsidies motivated Punjab farmers to go for water guzzling crops like rice.
  • Crop diversity: Crop diversity gives way to the standard staple crops where there is assured market and cost of production is low due to subsidies. For example wheat and rice are the standard crops in present times for Rabi and Kharif season respectively.
  • Economy of farmers: Various subsidies ensure income support to farmers and safe stock of food grains. But at the same time it leads to distorted production patterns, resulting in food inflation.

Significance of various factors on small and marginal farmers

  • Crop insurance: It provides income security in case of crop failure due to natural and other reasons.  It also gives them a cushion against their investment in agricultural activities.
  • Minimum Support Price: Minimum prices ensure a minimum guaranteed income for the crops thereby hedging them from market fluctuations. Guarantee of a buyer while cultivation of crops gives a sense of financial security to the farmer.
  • Food processing: Through value addition it ensures not only better income but long shelf life for the agro products. For the country like India where the wastage is high and over 80% of farmers are small and marginal with limited capacity, their income base can be enhanced through food processing.

Conclusion:

  • There is an unmet demand for rice and wheat which is met by millets. If consumers see millets as a solution to lifestyle disorders, producers have realised that it requires less inputs and is an economically viable option if marketing avenues are created.

Mains Practice Question:

Q) “Anger and intolerance are the enemies of correct understanding.” – Mahatma Gandhi. (2018) (150 words)

“क्रोध और असहिष्णुता सही समझ के दुश्मन हैं।” – महात्मा गांधी। (2018) (150 शब्द)

 

UPSC Mains Result 2022

 

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