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The Hindu Newspaper Analysis 23 November 2022

 

The Hindu Newspaper Analysis for UPSC

tenures of Chief Election Commissioners
tenures of Chief Election Commissioners

The Hindu Newspaper Analysis 22 November 2022

  • The Supreme Court on Tuesday said the government pays mere “lip-service” to the independence of the Election Commissioners and this is evident from the way the tenures of Chief Election Commissioners (CECs) have “slid” down from over eight years in the 1950s to just about a few hundred days after 2004.
  • “Their (CECs) tenure is highly truncated and known from the very beginning… In this way, this so-called independence that you pay lip-service to, I am sorry to say, is completely destroyed by getting this kind of a term,” Justice K.M. Joseph, heading a Constitution Bench, addressed the Union government.
  • Justice Joseph said the previous UPA government had six CECs in just eight years. “After the present government took over, from 2015 to 2022, for seven years, we have had eight CECs!” Justice Joseph, leading a five-judge Bench, addressed Attorney-General R. Venkataramani, appearing for the Centre.
  • Justice Joseph said successive governments, particularly after 2004, have “picked” people whom it knew would “never ever” get close to the full term of six years prescribed under the Election Commission (Conditions of Service of Election Commissioners and Transaction of Business) Act of 1991. Section 4 of the 1991 Act says the term of a CEC and Election Commissioners is six years or till the age of 65, whichever is earlier.
  • Originally the commission had only a Chief Election Commissioner.
  • It currently consists of the Chief Election Commissioner and two Election Commissioners.
    • For the first time, two additional Commissioners were appointed on 16th October 1989 but they had a very short tenure till 1st January 1990.
    • Later, on 1st October 1993 two additional Election Commissioners were appointed.
    • The concept of a multi-member Commission has been in operation since then, with decision making power by majority vote.

The Hindu Editorial Today

Appointment ,Tenure & Privileges of Commissioners

  • The President appoints Chief Election Commissioner and Election Commissioners.
  • They have a tenure of six years, or up to the age of 65 years, whichever is earlier.
  • They enjoy the same status and receive salary and perks as available to Judges of the Supreme Court of India.
biodiversity heritage site
biodiversity heritage site
  • The Tamil Nadu government on Tuesday issued a notification declaring Arittapatti and Meenakshipuram villages in Madurai district the first biodiversity heritage site in the State.
  • District Forest Officer S. Gurusamy Dabbala said that notifying an area a biodiversity heritage site would help in protecting its rich and exclusive ecosystem. “Through the steps to be initiated by the Forest Department soon, factors that may harm the biodiversity will be kept at bay.”
  • To prevent the loss of biodiversity and preserve the cultural and architectural heritage, the government, as recommended by the Tamil Nadu Biodiversity Board, has declared Arittapatti a biodiversity heritage site.

Biodiversity Heritage Sites (BHS)

  • Under Section 37 of Biological Diversity Act, 2002 the State Government in consultation with local bodies may notify the areas of biodiversity importance as Biodiversity Heritage Sites.
  • The Biodiversity Heritage Sites are the well defined areas that are unique, ecologically fragile ecosystems – terrestrial, coastal and inland waters and, marine having rich biodiversity comprising of any one or more of the following components:
    • richness of wild as well as domesticated species or intra-specific categories
    • high endemism
    • presence of rare and threatened species
    • keystone species
    • species of evolutionary significance
    • wild ancestors of domestic/cultivated species or their varieties
    • past preeminence of biological components represented by fossil beds
    • having significant cultural, ethical or aesthetic values; important for the maintenance of cultural diversity (with or without a long history of human association with them)
FRO was brutally killed allegedly by a group of Gutti Koya Adivasis
FRO was brutally killed allegedly by a group of Gutti Koya Adivasis
  • A Forest Range Officer (FRO) was brutally killed allegedly by a group of Gutti Koya Adivasis with axes and sickles over a “podu land” (encroachments on forest lands) issue in the Errabodu forests in Chandrugonda mandal of Telangana’s Bhadradri Kothagudem district on Tuesday.
  • The incident took place on Tuesday morning when Srinivas Rao along with his staff rushed to Bendalapadu tribal habitation to prevent an alleged attempt by a group of local tribal people to remove saplings in a plantation raised by the Forest Department in Errabodu forest area.
  • The migrant tribals, who claimed themselves as ‘podu cultivators’, allegedly chased the FRO for a few metres before attacking him with sickles and axes.
  • Podu is a traditional system of cultivation used by tribes in India, whereby different areas of jungle forest are cleared by burning each year to provide land for crops.
  • It is a form of shifting agriculture using slash-and-burn methods. The word comes from the Telugu language.
“Whose side is India on?” is one foundational question
“Whose side is India on?” is one foundational question
  • “Whose side is India on?” is one foundational question that constantly confronts practitioners, thinkers and commentators of India’s foreign policy.
  • When great powers seek India’s support during geopolitical contestations, such as the one over Ukraine, they end up facing a stubborn India that is reluctant to toe the line.
  • India, however, has a different view of itself as a pole. It has not actively sought to dominate the South Asian regional subsystem even when it could (even though it occasionally and reluctantly intervened, but often with disastrous consequences); its balancing behaviour has been subpar, it has refused to build alliances in the classical sense of the term, or sought camp followers or allegiances.
  • India is a pivotal power in the Indo-Pacific and beyond, with an ability to help tackle security, climate and other challenges of global consequence. Western powers must, therefore, treat India as a partner rather than as a cheerleader.
  • They should mainstream India into global institutions such as the UNSC, and consult India rather than dictate to India which side to take. The question to ask India is not “whose side are you on?” but “what is your side?”.
climate change effects, panchayats
climate change effects, panchayats
  • With rural households among the most vulnerable to climate change effects, panchayats, as local governments, can play a pivotal role in tackling many of the causes and consequences of global warming
  • If India has to achieve the set of goals enunciated in the ‘Panchamrit’ resolution of the COP26 climate summit in Glasgow 2021, it is necessary that panchayati raj institutions, the third tier of government which are closest to the people are involved.
  • In recent years, many panchayats have come forward with the concept of carbon neutrality, a prominent example being Meenangadi gram panchayat in Kerala’s Wayanad district, which serves as a model to emulate.
  • ‘Tree banking’ was one of landmark schemes introduced to aid carbon neutral activities which encouraged the planting of more trees by extending interest-free loans.
  • The Ministry of Panchayati Raj has focused its attention on localising the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) on a thematic basis.

Five Nectar Elements (Panchamrit):

India has presented the following five nectar elements (Panchamrit) of India’s climate action:

  1. Reach 500 GW Non-fossil energy capacity by 2030.
  2. 50 per cent of its energy requirements from renewable energy by 2030.
  3. Reduction of total projected carbon emissions by one billion tonnes from now to 2030.
  4. Reduction of the carbon intensity of the economy by 45 per cent by 2030, over 2005 levels.
  5. Achieving the target of net zero emissions by 2070.
Data Protection Board of India
Data Protection Board of India
  • Now, a notice is to be provided for the consent of the data principal, and the withdrawal of consent should allow for fiduciaries to remove any such data stored or is to be shared with others.
  • The new draft, unlike the 2018 version, does not refer to key data protection principles such as collection limitation — obligations on the data fiduciaries to collect only such personal data that is required for the purpose of processing.
  • It also does not include obligations on data fiduciaries to inform principals about data sharing recipients, duration of storage, etc.
  • The new draft proposes the establishment of a Data Protection Board of India, whose strength and composition, the process of selection, etc. will be prescribed by the Union government. As with the earlier versions, this diverges from the Srikrishna Committee Draft which allowed for judicial oversight in the selection process of the data protection authority.
Right to Privacy Bill, 2011
Right to Privacy Bill, 2011
  • The journey towards a data protection legislation began in 2011 when the Department of Personnel and Training initiated discussions on the Right to Privacy Bill, 2011.
  • The surveillance architecture in India comprises mainly of Section 5(2) of the Indian Telegraph Act, 1885; Section 69 of the Information Technology Act, 2000; and the procedural rules promulgated under them.
  • Apart from outright surveillance, unfettered collection and processing of citizen data for other purposes, such as digital governance, raise concerns. Agitation over the nature of the surveillance architecture was voiced by the Supreme Court in its right to privacy decision in 2017 and by the Justice B.N. Srikrishna Committee in 2018.
  • Like previous iterations, Clause 18(2) of the 2022 Bill allows the Union government to provide blanket exemptions for selected government agencies.
National Suicide Prevention Strategy
National Suicide Prevention Strategy
  • The best first step towards addressing a malaise is to recognise that it exists. The Ministry of Health and Family Welfare’s recently published National Suicide Prevention Strategy fits right there. It has been a long time coming, but the Strategy, finally in the public realm, calls attention to the massive burden of suicides in the country, and initiates steps to achieve a reduction in suicide mortality by 10% by 2030.
  • Globally, suicide is the second leading cause of death among 15-29-year-olds and also the second leading cause of death for females aged 15-19 years, as per WHO estimates.
  • Addressing issues relevant to India, including access to pesticides, and alcoholism, has set the Strategy on the path towards achievement of the goals. It is, however, incumbent on the Government to stay the course until the targets are achieved. Of course, in a federal country, any success is possible only if States are enthusiastic participants in the roll out.
lukewarm response to project Unnati
lukewarm response to project Unnati
  • Facing less than a lukewarm response to project Unnati, which aims to reduce dependence on the Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme (MGNREGS) by imparting skill training to its beneficiaries, the Union Rural Development Ministry wants to link performances of the States under the project with its labour budget for the next financial year.
  • Since its inception in 2020, just a little over 25,000 persons have been trained under the project, falling far short of its target of two lakh. The project was slated to end in March 2022, but has been extended by two years.
  • Unnati was launched with the intention of upgrading the skill base of MGNREGS workers to help them transition from partial employment to full employment. The aim of the project is to train one adult member (18-45 age group) of a household that has completed 100 days of work under the MGNREGS.

About MGNREGA

  • The Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (MGNREGA), also known as Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme (MNREGS) is Indian legislation enacted on August 25, 2005.
  • The MGNREGA provides a legal guarantee for one hundred days of employment in every financial year to adult members of any rural household willing to do public work-related unskilled manual work at the statutory minimum wage.
  • The Ministry of Rural Development (MRD), Govt of India is monitoring the entire implementation of this scheme in association with state governments.
  • Roughly one-third of the stipulated work force must be women.

Eligibility Criteria

  1. Must be Citizen of India to seek MGNREGA benefits.
  2. Job seeker has completed 18 years of age at the time of application.
  3. The applicant must be part of a local household (i.e. application must be made with local Gram Panchayat).
  4. Applicant must volunteer for unskilled labour.
OECD
OECD
  • The global economy should avoid a recession next year but the worst energy crisis since the 1970s will trigger a sharp slowdown, with Europe hit hardest, the OECD said, adding that fighting inflation should be policymakers’ top priority.
  • National outlooks vary widely, with the U.K.’s economy set to lag major peers, the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development said on Tuesday. It forecast that world economic growth would slow from 3.1% this year — slightly better than foreseen in September — to 2.2% next year, before accelerating to 2.7% in 2024.
  • “We are not predicting a recession, but we are certainly projecting a period of pronounced weakness, OECD head Mathias Cormann told a news conference on the organisation’s latest Economic Outlook.
  • Organisation for Economic Cooperation and DevelopmentThe OECD is an intergovernmental economic organisation, founded to stimulate economic progress and world trade.
    Most OECD members are high-income economies with a very high Human Development Index (HDI) and are regarded as developed countries.
  • Founded: 1961.
  • Headquarters: Paris, France.
  • Total Members: 38.
  • India is not a member, but a key economic partner.

Q) Consider the following statements.

  1. Agriculture has been included in the State List in the Seventh Schedule of the Constitution of India.
  2. Education including agricultural education and research has been included in the Concurrent List in the Seventh Schedule of the Constitution of India.
  3. Department of Agricultural Research and Education (DARE) was set up in the Ministry of Agriculture to facilitate agricultural research and education and attend to matters related to Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR).

Which of the above statements is/are correct?

  1. 1, 2
  2. 1, 3
  3. 2, 3
  4. 1, 2, 3

निम्नलिखित कथनों पर विचार करें।

  1. भारत के संविधान की सातवीं अनुसूची में कृषि को राज्य सूची में शामिल किया गया है।
  2. भारत के संविधान की सातवीं अनुसूची में कृषि शिक्षा और अनुसंधान सहित शिक्षा को समवर्ती सूची में शामिल किया गया है।
  3. कृषि अनुसंधान और शिक्षा विभाग (डीएआरई) की स्थापना कृषि मंत्रालय में कृषि अनुसंधान और शिक्षा की सुविधा के लिए और भारतीय कृषि अनुसंधान परिषद (आईसीएआर) से संबंधित मामलों में भाग लेने के लिए की गई थी।

उपरोक्त कथनों में से कौन-सा/से सही है/हैं?

  1. 1, 2
  2. 1, 3
  3. 2, 3
  4. 1, 2, 3
  • Agriculture was included in the List II (State List) in the Seventh Schedule of the Constitution. More importantly, agricultural education was detached from the other streams of higher education and attached to the occupied field of agriculture in List II. Thus, Entry 14 in List II reads: “Agriculture, including agricultural education and research…”; Entry 15 reads: “…veterinary training and practice”; and Entry 21 reads: “Fisheries”.
  • Indeed, education was included in List III (Concurrent List).
  • The ICAR has had a unique legal status. It was established in 1929 (“I”, then, stood for Imperial) as a department of the Government of India though it was also a society registered under the Societies Registration Act. After independence, the Department of Agricultural Research and Education (DARE) was set up in 1973 in the Ministry of Agriculture. The major functions of DARE were to facilitate agricultural research and education, coordinate between the Centre and the States, and attend to matters related to the ICAR.

Q) Consider the following statements regarding Mangalajodi area.

  1. Mangalajodi is recognised as globally important for the conservation of bird population, where the area is used for roosting and nesting by migratory birds.
  2. It is located at the edge of the Kolleru Lake in Andhra Pradesh.

Which of the above statements is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

मंगलाजोड़ी क्षेत्र के संबंध में निम्नलिखित कथनों पर विचार करें।

  1. मंगलाजोडी को पक्षी आबादी के संरक्षण के लिए विश्व स्तर पर महत्वपूर्ण माना जाता है, जहां इस क्षेत्र का उपयोग प्रवासी पक्षियों द्वारा बसेरा और घोंसले बनाने के लिए किया जाता है।
  2. यह आंध्र प्रदेश में कोलेरू झील के किनारे स्थित है।

उपरोक्त कथनों में से कौन-सा/से सही है/हैं?

  1. केवल 1
  2. केवल 2
  3. 1 और 2 दोनों
  4. न तो 1 और न ही 2
  • Mangalajodi area is located on the banks of Chilika lake — an important bird area (IBA).
  • Mangalajodi is recognised as globally important for the conservation of bird population. The area is used for roosting and nesting by migratory birds. The area is 8.3 square km of marshy land with emergent vegetation.

Q) With reference to SVAMITVA scheme, consider the following statements:

  1. It is a Central Sector Scheme.
  2. The scheme is piloted by the Ministry of Rural Development.
  3. Under the scheme, residential land in villages will be measured using drones to create a non-disputable record.

Which of the given above statements is/are correct?

  1. 1 and 2 only
  2. 2 and 3 only
  3. 1 and 3 only
  4. 1, 2 and 3

SVAMITVA योजना के संदर्भ में, निम्नलिखित कथनों पर विचार करें:

  1. यह एक केंद्रीय क्षेत्र की योजना है।
  2. यह योजना ग्रामीण विकास मंत्रालय द्वारा संचालित है।
  3. योजना के तहत गैर-विवादित रिकॉर्ड बनाने के लिए गांवों में आवासीय भूमि को ड्रोन का उपयोग करके मापा जाएगा।

ऊपर दिए गए कथनों में से कौन-सा/से सही है/हैं?

  1. केवल 1 और 2
  2. केवल 2 और 3
  3. केवल 1 और 3
  4. 1, 2 और 3

Explanation:

  • Launched on Panchayati Raj Diwas (April 24th, 2020).
  • The scheme seeks to map residential land ownership in the rural sector using modern technology like the use of drones.
  • The scheme aims to revolutionise property record maintenance in India.
  • The scheme is piloted by the Panchayati Raj ministry.
  • Under the scheme, residential land in villages will be measured using drones to create a non-disputable record.
  • Property card for every property in the village will be prepared by states using accurate measurements delivered by drone-mapping. These cards will be given to property owners and will be recognised by the land revenue records department.

Q) Consider following statement regarding Ram Setu:

  1. Gulf of Mannar in the north of Adam’s Bridge or Ram Setu.
  2. Palk Bay in the south of Adam’s Bridge or Ram Setu.

Which of the above statements is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

राम सेतु के संबंध में निम्नलिखित कथनों पर विचार करें:

  1. एडम ब्रिज या राम सेतु के उत्तर में मन्नार की खाड़ी।
  2. एडम ब्रिज या राम सेतु के दक्षिण में पाल्क खाड़ी।

उपरोक्त कथनों में से कौन-सा/से सही है/हैं?

  1. केवल 1
  2. केवल 2
  3. 1 और 2 दोनों
  4. न तो 1 और न ही 2
Gulf of Mannar
Gulf of Mannar

Q) Consider the following statements about The Comptroller and Auditor General of India (CAG):

  1. CAG is appointed by the President of India by a warrant under his hand and seal.
  2. He holds office for a period of six years or up to the age of 65 years, whichever is earlier.

Which of the above statements is/are Incorrect?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

भारत के नियंत्रक और महालेखा परीक्षक (CAG) के बारे में निम्नलिखित कथनों पर विचार करें:

  1. CAG की नियुक्ति भारत के राष्ट्रपति द्वारा उनके हस्ताक्षर और मुहर के तहत एक वारंट द्वारा की जाती है।
  2. वह छह वर्ष की अवधि के लिए या 65 वर्ष की आयु तक, जो भी पहले हो, पद धारण करता है।

उपरोक्त में से कौन सा/से कथन गलत है/हैं?

  1. केवल 1
  2. केवल 2
  3. 1 और 2 दोनों
  4. न तो 1 और न ही 2

Explanation:

  • CAG is appointed by the President of India by a warrant under his hand and seal. He holds office for a period of six years or up to the age of 65 years, whichever is earlier.
  • CAG audits the accounts related to all expenditures from the Consolidated Fund of India, the Consolidated Fund of each state and UT having a legislative assembly. He acts as a guide, friend and philosopher of the Public Accounts Committee of the Parliament.
  • He submits 3 audit reports to the President: an audit report on appropriation accounts, an audit report on finance accounts and an audit report on public undertakings.

Mains Practice Question:

Q) How has the emphasis on certain crops brought about changes in cropping patterns in the recent past? Elaborate the emphasis on millets production and consumption.(UPSC 2018) (150 words)

कुछ फसलों पर बल देने से फसल में किस प्रकार परिवर्तन आया है हाल के दिनों में पैटर्न? बाजरा उत्पादन पर बल को विस्तृत करें और खपत। (यूपीएससी 2018)

Introduction: 

  • Cropping pattern is the proportion of area under various crops at a point of time. The cropping patterns of a region are mainly influenced by the geo-climatic, socio-economic, historical and political factors.

Body: 

  • In the recent past, a lot of changes have occurred in the cropping pattern in India: There has been a shift towards rice-wheat cropping pattern since the ‘Green Revolution’ of the 1960s. Paddy, cotton, soybean, and sugarcane cover more than half of total sown area taking over the area traditionally devoted to millets, oilseeds and pulses which were more suited to the local climatic and soil conditions.
  • The gain in the wheat production has come at the cost of millets and sorghum as wheat has been considered superior over them. As India is one of the largest consumer and importer of pulses and oilseeds, the government has tried to increase their acreage and productivity. Higher MSPs has been announced for these crops recently.
  • Millets grow well in dry zones as rain-fed crops, under marginal conditions of soil fertility and moisture and are stable yielders. About 30 million acres in India fall under millets. Millets are grown in about 21 States and major impetus is being given on its production in Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Kerala, Telangana, Uttarakhand, Jharkhand, Madhya Pradesh and Haryana.
  • Millets are the super foods for the present and future; their short growing season (65 days) makes them commercially sound. Consumption: With lifestyle diseases running rampant, millets have returned as a viable option to live healthy life. Various States have been distributing millets such as bajra, jowar and ragi through the PDS.

Conclusion:

  • There is an unmet demand for rice and wheat which is met by millets. If consumers see millets as a solution to lifestyle disorders, producers have realised that it requires less inputs and is an economically viable option if marketing avenues are created.

Mains Practice Question:

Q) How do subsidies affect the cropping pattern, crop diversity and economy of farmers? What is the significance of crop insurance, minimum support price and food processing for small and marginal farmers? (2017)

सब्सिडी किस प्रकार फसल पैटर्न, फसल विविधता और किसानों की अर्थव्यवस्था को प्रभावित करती है? छोटे और सीमांत किसानों के लिए फसल बीमा, न्यूनतम समर्थन मूल्य और खाद्य प्रसंस्करण का क्या महत्व है? (2017)

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UPSC Mains Result 2022

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