The Hindu Newspaper Analysis for UPSC
- Delegates at the UN’s climate conference in Sharm el-Sheikh, Egypt thrashed out an agreement on Sunday to establish a loss and damage (L&D) fund to compensate the most vulnerable countries from climate-linked disasters.
- Crucial questions — such as who will manage this fund, whether contributions are expected from large developing countries and what the fair share of contributors will be — have been left to a “transitional committee” that will make recommendations for the adoption of the fund.
- The 27th edition of the United Nations Conference of the Parties was projected to be an ‘implementation’ COP that would have decisively resolved questions on how developed countries, responsible for the bulk of historical emissions, would make good on an old promise to provide developing countries $100 billion annually by 2020.
- COP-27 will certainly be remembered as the COP of Loss and Damages (L&D). A nearly three-decade old movement, first initiated by the island nation of Vanuatu and the Alliance of Small Island States, has come to partial fruition.
- The text approved at Sharm el-Sheikh only commits to a fund being created and leaves discussions for how it is to be set up and, most importantly, who will pay how much to it, for future COP negotiations.
What is COP 27
- COP 27 stands for the Conference of Parties and is the annual UN Climate Change Conference that takes place in a different host city each year.
- The COP is the supreme decision-making body of the UNFCCC and the COP assesses progress on combating climate change.
Why is COP 27 Important
- Ever since the first COP in Berlin in 1995, COPs have been used to review what Parties (the countries who signed up) have achieved, and measure progress.
- The big question before India is where its economy will be 25 years from now. By 2047, India will complete 100 years after Independence. By that time, will India achieve the status of a developed economy, which means achieving a minimum per capita income equivalent to $13,000?
- It is not realised often that India’s economic progress in the first half of the 20th century under British rule was dismal. According to one estimate, during the five decades, India’s annual growth rate was just 0.89%. With the population growing at 0.83%, per capita income grew at 0.06%. It is not surprising that immediately after Independence, growth became the most urgent concern for policymakers.
- In the early period, India’s strategy of development comprised four elements — raising the savings and investment rate; dominance of state intervention; import substitution, and domestic manufacture of capital goods.
- However, by the end of 1970s, it was becoming clear that the model India had chosen was not delivering and that it needed modification. By that time, there were many more critics of the Indian strategy. But India’s policymakers refused to recognise this. It was around that time China made a big change.
- It was the crisis of 1990-91 that compelled the policymakers to turn to an ‘idea whose time had come’. The break with the past came in three important directions: first, in dismantling the complex regime of licences and permits; second, in redefining the role of state; and third, in giving up the inward looking trade policy.
- Post COVID-19 and the Russia-Ukraine war, there is a need to lay down a road map for India’s future development. The first and foremost task is to raise the growth rate.
- Raising the investment rate depends on a number of factors. A proper investment climate must be created and sustained. While public investment should also rise, the major component of investment is private investment, both corporate and non-corporate. It is this which depends on a stable financial and fiscal system. The importance of price stability in this context cannot be ignored.
- India today is the fifth largest economy. This is an impressive achievement. However, in relation to per capita income, it is a different story.
- The 16 Days of Activism against Gender-Based Violence is an annual international campaign that kicks off on 25 November, the International Day for the Elimination of Violence against Women, and runs until 10 December, Human Rights Day.
- It was started by activists at the inaugural Women’s Global Leadership Institute in 1991 and continues to be coordinated each year by the Center for Women’s Global Leadership.
- The coup in Myanmar, a Taliban takeover in Afghanistan, and Russia’s invasion of Ukraine — that have all occurred in the last 18 months — have each underscored the fact that women bear a disproportionate burden in conflict, especially those forced to flee their homes and seek refuge in other countries.
- Indian women received universal suffrage during India’s independence in 1947.
- Women in India continue to make progress in all areas of human endeavours, including politics, science, business, medicine, sports and agriculture. Women have overcome “the glass ceiling” in the armed forces and can also serve as commanders since 2020. Today, India has the largest number of women in the United Nations peacekeeping forces, thus showcasing the equal role that women can play in conflict-emerging countries and territories.
- There are over 2,12,000 refugees in India including those supported by the Government of India, more than half of whom are women and girls. India ensures that refugees can access protection services that are on a par with their fellow Indian hosts.
- However, for those registered with the UNHCR, such as refugees from Afghanistan, Myanmar and other countries, while they have access to protection and limited assistance services, they do not possess government-issued documentation. Thus, they are unable to open bank accounts, benefit from all government welfare schemes, and are thus inadvertently left behind.
- India is not a signatory to the 1951 Refugee Conference nor to its 1967 protocol on the repute of refugees. Given that no refugee law exists in India, there is no uniformity in the treatment of refugees in the country.
- The missile incident in Poland, in which two people were killed, should serve as a warning: the Ukraine conflict could potentially spill over into a wider war between nuclear-armed Russia and NATO.
- Zelenskyy’s comment was irresponsible. His anger towards Russia is justifiable given that his country is being bombarded on a daily basis, but as the President of Ukraine, what he says will have consequences, and he should wait for the facts and respond cautiously when it comes to NATO-Russia tensions.
- Russia should understand that Ukraine is now a tinderbox. To overcome its battlefield failures, Russia is now deliberately targeting Ukrainian infrastructure with repeated missile attacks.
- All stakeholders, primarily Russia which started the war, have the responsibility to put in place the guardrails against escalation.
- The Kerala High Court recently annulled the appointment of the Vice-Chancellor of the Kerala University of Fisheries and Ocean Studies (KUFOS). The court said that the appointment violated the University Grants Commission (UGC) Regulations of 2018. It listed two specific violations: (a) the search committee recommended a single name and not a panel; and (b) in the search committee, the State government included the Director-General of the Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR) instead of a UGC nominee.
- First, it weakens the principle of federalism by dismantling the role of State governments in the governance of agricultural universities.
- Agriculture was included as an occupied field in List II (State List) in the Seventh Schedule. Agricultural education was detached from other streams of higher education and attached to agriculture in List II itself.
- Indeed, education is in List III (Concurrent List). Entry 25 of List III reads: “Education, including technical education, medical education and universities, subject to the provisions of entries 63, 64, 65 and 66 of List I…”. But there is no mention of agricultural education in Entry 25 of List III.
- The ICAR has had a unique legal status. It was established in 1929 as a department of the Government of India (GoI) though it was also a society registered under the Societies Registration Act.
- In 1973, the Department of Agricultural Research and Education (DARE) was set up under the Agriculture Ministry to facilitate agricultural research and education, coordinate between the Centre and States, and administrate the ICAR.
- The Secretary to the GoI in DARE was concurrently designated as the Director-General of ICAR.
- It was launched on 24thFebruary, 2019 to supplement financial needs of land holding farmers.
- Financial Benefits:
- Financial benefit of Rs 6000/- per year in three equal installments, every four month is transferred into the bank accounts of farmers’ families across the country through Direct Benefit Transfer (DBT) mode.
- Scope of the Scheme:
- The scheme was initially meant for Small and Marginal Farmers (SMFs) having landholding upto 2 hectares but scope of the scheme was extended to cover all landholding farmers.
- Funding and Implementation:
- It is a Central Sector Scheme with 100% funding from the Government of India.
- It is being implemented by the Ministry of Agriculture and Farmers Welfare.
Q) In which of the following places is Pangong Tso Lake located?
- Arunachal Pradesh
- Himachal Pradesh
- None of the above
निम्नलिखित में से किस स्थान पर पैंगोंग त्सो झील स्थित है?
- अरुणाचल प्रदेश
- हिमाचल प्रदेश
- उपर्युक्त में से कोई नहीं
Q) Battle of Saraighat was fought between
- Marathas and Afghans
- Mughal Empire and Ahom Kingdom
- Marathas and Rajputs
- Marathas and Ahom Kingdom
सरायघाट का युद्ध किसके बीच लड़ा गया था?
- मराठा और अफगान
- मुगल साम्राज्य और अहोम साम्राज्य
- मराठा और राजपूत
- मराठा और अहोम साम्राज्य
Q) The name of Ahom general Lachit Borphukan is credited with defeating the Mughals in the Battle of Saraighat (1671).
The Hwasong-17 is nuclear-armed missile developed by:
- North Korea
Hwasong-17 परमाणु-सशस्त्र मिसाइल है जिसे किसके द्वारा विकसित किया गया है:
- उत्तर कोरिया
According to North Korea, it recently test fired its massive new Hwasong-17 intercontinental ballistic missile (ICBM).
- The Hwasong-17 is nuclear-armed North Korea’s biggest missile yet.
- It is the largest road-mobile, liquid-fuelled ICBM in the world.
- Its diameter is estimated to be between 2.4 and 2.5 metres, and its total mass, when fully fuelled, is likely somewhere between 80,000 and 110,000 kg.
- Unlike North Korea’s earlier ICBMs, the Hwasong-17 is launched directly from a transporter, erector, launcher (TEL) vehicle with 11 axles.
Q) Uda Devi is remembered not only for her stories of valour but also for her skill as a leader who managed to mobilise people — specially Dalit women — to take up arms against the British. She participated in which of the following?
- Revolt of 1857
- Non-Cooperation Movement
- Civil Disobedience Movement
- None of the above
उदा देवी को न केवल उनकी वीरता की कहानियों के लिए याद किया जाता है, बल्कि एक नेता के रूप में उनके कौशल के लिए भी याद किया जाता है, जो अंग्रेजों के खिलाफ हथियार उठाने के लिए लोगों – विशेष रूप से दलित महिलाओं – को लामबंद करने में कामयाब रहे। उसने निम्नलिखित में से किस में भाग लिया?
- 1857 का विद्रोह
- असहयोग आंदोलन
- सविनय अवज्ञा आंदोलन
- उपरोक्त में से कोई नहीं
On November 16, events to commemorate the martyrdom of Uda Devi, a freedom fighter from the Pasi community, were held at various places in Uttar Pradesh.
- She was born in Ujirao, Lucknow.
- She was part of the royal guard of Begum Hazrat Mahal of Awadh.
- Uda Devi is remembered not only for her stories of valour but also for her skill as a leader who managed to mobilise people — specially Dalit women — to take up arms against the British.
- On November 16, 1857, Uda Devi was among the soldiers who clashed with the British regiment stationed near the Gomti River.
- She formed an all-women battalion, today called the Dalit Veeranganas, to take part in armed uprisings against the British.
- Devi belonged to the Pasi community, which was labelled a ‘criminal caste’ by the British administration under the Criminal Tributes Act, 1871.
Q) Which of the following battles was fought by Indian Army with Pakistan?
- Battle of RezangLa
- Battle of Asal Uttar
- Battle of Walong
Select the correct answer using the code given below:
- 2 only
- 1 and 2 only
- 2 and 3 only
- 1, 2 and 3
निम्नलिखित में से कौन सी लड़ाई भारतीय सेना ने पाकिस्तान के साथ लड़ी थी?
- रेजांगला की लड़ाई
- असल उत्तर का युद्ध
- वालोंग की लड़ाई
नीचे दिए गए कूट का प्रयोग कर सही उत्तर चुनिए:
- केवल 2
- 1 और 2 केवल
- केवल 2 और 3
- 1, 2 और 3
November 18, 2022, is the 60th anniversary of the Battle of Rezang La, one of the few bright spots in the War of 1962 with China.
- The Battle of RezangLa is an epic battle Indian Army ever fought in hostile conditions in eastern Ladakh region.
- RezangLa showed sheer tenacity and valour of the soldiers of ‘Charlie Company of 13 Kumaon Regiment of the Indian Army.
- The bravery of Indian soldiers in this battle forced China to declared ceasefire.
Battle of Walong:
- Walong is one of India’s easternmost villages in Arunachal Pradesh.
- In the 1962 India-China War, the Indian Army defended against China in all sectors except one — Arunachal Pradesh’s Walong.
- The Battle of Walong was the only counterattack India could manage in the war.
- Indian Army held back the Chinese troops for 27 days, which forced the Chinese to deploy its reserve division from Tawang to Walong.
The Battle of Asal Uttar was one of the largest tank battles fought during the Indo-Pakistani War of 1965.
Mains Practice Question:
Q) How far do you agree with the view that the focus on lack of availability of food as the main cause of hunger takes the attention away from ineffective human development policies in India? (2018) (150 words)
आप इस विचार से कहाँ तक सहमत हैं कि भूख के मुख्य कारण के रूप में भोजन की उपलब्धता की कमी पर ध्यान देने से भारत में अप्रभावी मानव विकास नीतियों से ध्यान हट जाता है? (2018) (150 शब्द)
- Hunger is a stark and bitter reality for teeming millions in India who are caught under the ‘poverty trap’. It is also quite true that the single point focus on lack of availability of food as the prime reason for hunger has kept the ineffectiveness of human development policies in India in the background.
- Most of the poverty stricken households barely manage a difficult existence and struggle to provide their children with the nourishment they need to be healthy, happy and reach their full potential.
- Almost a third of Indian babies are born with low birth weight which is a very high number and reflects the ineffectiveness of human development policies in India. Lack of access to food, no access to drinking water, lack of sanitation facilities and gender inequity – all of these contribute to child malnutrition, which again stems from hunger and poverty.
- Ending hunger and malnutrition will not be achieved by focusing on food security and agriculture alone.
- Policymakers in India must acknowledge the critical need to link action in addressing food security to national strategies across sectors.
- There is a need to pursue a “zero hunger” programme with no stunted children below the age of two. This should be a multipronged strategy that focuses on improving agricultural productivity, empowers women through support for maternal and child care practices, and offers nutritional education and social protection programmes.
- India should adopt a zero tolerance mindset in battling hunger through long-term political commitment and effective human development policies that do not see hunger as arising only out of lack of availability of food.
- The country’s serious hunger level is driven by high child malnutrition and underlines need for stronger commitment to the social sector and effective human development policies rooted in ground realities of India.
Mains Practice Question:
Q) How has the emphasis on certain crops brought about changes in cropping patterns in the recent past? Elaborate the emphasis on millets production and consumption.(UPSC 2018) (150 words)
कुछ फसलों पर बल देने से फसल में किस प्रकार परिवर्तन आया है हाल के दिनों में पैटर्न? बाजरा उत्पादन पर बल को विस्तृत करें और खपत। (यूपीएससी 2018)