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The Hindu Newspaper Analysis 17 November 2022

 

The Hindu Newspaper Analysis for UPSC

Leaders of the G-20 grouping
Leaders of the G-20 grouping

The Hindu Newspaper Analysis 16 November 2022

  • Joint declaration says the conflict is exacerbating existing fragilities in the global economy, constraining growth, threatening energy and food security and elevating financial stability risks
  • Leaders of the G-20 grouping on Wednesday said it was “essential to uphold international law and the multilateral system” as “today’s era must not be of war”.
  • The declaration revealed that not all member states condemned the Russian action against Ukraine. “Most members strongly condemned the war, and stressed it is causing immense human suffering and exacerbating existing fragilities in the global economy — constraining growth, increasing inflation, disrupting supply chains, heightening energy and food security and elevating financial stability risks,” it said.
  • During the Presidency, India, Indonesia and Brazil would form the troika. This would be the first time when the troika would consist of three developing countries and emerging economies, providing them a greater voice.
    • Troika refers to the top grouping within the G20 that consists of the current, previous and the upcoming presidencies (Indonesia, India and Brazil).

The Hindu Editorial Today

About:

  • The G20 was formed in 1999 in the backdrop of the financial crisis of the late 1990s that hit East Asia and Southeast Asia in particular.
  • It aims to secure global financial stability by involving middle-income countries.

Members:

  • Argentina, Australia, Brazil, Canada, China, France, Germany, India, Indonesia, Italy, Japan, Republic of Korea, Mexico, Russia, Saudi Arabia, South Africa, Turkey, the United Kingdom, the United States and the EU.
financial crisis of the late 1990s
financial crisis of the late 1990s

About:

  • The G20 was formed in 1999 in the backdrop of the financial crisis of the late 1990s that hit East Asia and Southeast Asia in particular.
  • It aims to secure global financial stability by involving middle-income countries.

Members:

  • Argentina, Australia, Brazil, Canada, China, France, Germany, India, Indonesia, Italy, Japan, Republic of Korea, Mexico, Russia, Saudi Arabia, South Africa, Turkey, the United Kingdom, the United States and the EU.
UGC Regulations of 2018
UGC Regulations of 2018
  • In the first case, Gambhirdan K. Gadhvi vs The State Of Gujarat(March 3, 2022), from Sardar Patel University, Gujarat, the Court (Justices M.R. Shah and B.V. Nagarathna) quashed the appointment of the incumbent Vice Chancellor on the ground that the search committee did not form a panel for the appointment of VC, and, therefore, was not in accordance with the UGC Regulations of 2018.
  • In the second case, from Kerala, i.e., Professor (Dr) Sreejith P.S vs Dr. Rajasree M.S.(October 21, 2022), with the Bench of Justices M.R. Shah and M.M. Sundresh, the appointment of the Vice Chancellor of the A.P.J. Abdul Kalam Technological University, Thiruvananthapuram, was challenged on the ground that the search committee recommended only one name, which is against the UGC Regulations.
  • In the first case, Gambhirdan K. Gadhvi vs The State Of Gujarat(March 3, 2022), from Sardar Patel University, Gujarat, the Court (Justices M.R. Shah and B.V. Nagarathna) quashed the appointment of the incumbent Vice Chancellor on the ground that the search committee did not form a panel for the appointment of VC, and, therefore, was not in accordance with the UGC Regulations of 2018.
  • In the second case, from Kerala, i.e., Professor (Dr) Sreejith P.S vs Dr. Rajasree M.S.(October 21, 2022), with the Bench of Justices M.R. Shah and M.M. Sundresh, the appointment of the Vice Chancellor of the A.P.J. Abdul Kalam Technological University, Thiruvananthapuram, was challenged on the ground that the search committee recommended only one name, which is against the UGC Regulations.
  • First, a careful reading of Article 254 would show that the repugnancy under this Article relates to a State law and a substantive law made by Parliament.
G-20 members
G-20 members
  • India’s presidency, which begins on December 1, comes at a time when the world faces economic hardships and global recessionary trends.
  • In addition, the political polarisation between the U.S. and European Union, and Russia, all G-20 members, will make every meeting that India will host fraught with tensions.
Association of Democratic Reforms
Association of Democratic Reforms
  • On November 7, the Centre amended the scheme to allow an additional period of 15 days for electoral bond sales in years which have State elections. Whereas when it was introduced, these bonds were made available for a period of 10 days each in January, April, July and October with an exception in years with the Lok Sabha polls.
  • However, data analysed from the Association of Democratic Reforms’ (ADR) annual reports reveal that the share of “unknown sources of income” has increased following the introduction of electoral bonds, achieving the opposite of what it was intended to do.
  • The ADR classifies income of political parties into two major types — known and unknown. The known sources of income are further classified into two types — voluntary donations made above ₹20,000 whose donor details are submitted to the ECI and “other sources of known income” such as sale of movable and immoveable assets, etc.
  • The unknown sources include donations below ₹20,000 via electoral bonds, sale of coupons, etc., for which the details of donors are not available for the public. An amendment to the Representation of the People Act by the Finance Act, 2017, created a provision to exempt parties from declaring funds collected using electoral bonds.
  • Features
    • Introduced with the Finance Bill, 2017, the Electoral Bond Scheme was notified on January 29, 2018.
    • An Electoral Bond is like a promissory note that may be purchased by a person who is a citizen of India or incorporated or established in India.
    • A person being an individual can buy Electoral Bonds, either singly or jointly with other individuals.
    • The bonds are like banknotes that are payable to the bearer on demand and are interest-free.
    • Only the Political Parties registered under Section 29A of the Representation of the People Act (RPA), 1951 (43 of 1951) and which secured not less than one percent of the votes polled in the last General Election to the House of the People or the Legislative Assembly of the State, shall be eligible to receive the Electoral Bonds.
  • Procedure
    • The State Bank of India (SBI) has been authorised to issue and encash Electoral Bonds through its 29 Authorized Branches.
    • The bonds are sold by the SBI in denominations of Rs 1,000, Rs 10,000, Rs 1 lakh, Rs 10 lakh and Rs 1 crore.
    • One can purchase these bonds only digitally or through cheques.
    • The Electoral Bonds can be encashed by an eligible Political Party only through a Bank account with the Authorized Bank.
    • The Electoral Bond deposited by an eligible Political Party in its account is credited on the same day.
    • Electoral Bonds shall be valid for fifteen calendar days from the date of issue and no payment is being made to any payee Political Party if the Electoral Bond is deposited after expiry of the validity period.
  • Through an amendment to the Finance Act 2017, the Union government has exempted political parties from disclosing donations received through electoral bonds.
    • This means the voters will not know which individual, company, or organization has funded which party, and to what extent.

Prior to electoral bonds political parties had to disclose details of those who donated more than Rs 20,000 which is not the case at present.

S-300 rocket
S-300 rocket
  • From the information that we and our allies have, it was an S-300 rocket made in the Soviet Union, and there is no evidence that it was launched by the Russian side, says Polish President
  • It is a military alliance established by the North Atlantic Treaty (also called the Washington Treaty) of April 1949, by the United States, Canada, and several Western European nations to provide collective security against the Soviet Union.
  • Headquarters: Brussels, Belgium.
  • It was the US’s first peacetime military alliance outside the western hemisphere.
  • There are currently 30 member states.
  • NATO’s essential and enduring purpose is to safeguard the freedom and security of all its members by political and military means.
GHG emissions
GHG emissions
  • Between 1900 and now, developed countries have benefitted from industrial development, which also led to greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Therefore, options like financing the developing or underdeveloped countries by the developed world have been discussed at the COP27.
  • India is among the top seven emitters of GHG emissions. However, some emissions are unavoidable if we seek economic development. But, put in the context of India’s population, its emissions are far lesser per head, than for others. World average per capita GHG emissions were 6.3 tonnes of CO2 equivalent (tCO2e) in 2020.
  • The U.S. is above this at 14, followed by 13 in the Russian Federation and 9.7 in China. India remains far below the world average at 2.4.
ukraine
ukraine

Q) Government of India has declared 15th November as Janjatiya Gaurav Divas dedicated to the memory of brave tribal freedom fighters. November 15 is the birth anniversary of which of the following tribal leader?

  1. Birsa Munda
  2. Alluri Sitarama Raju
  3. Tilka Majhi
  4. Tantia Bhil

भारत सरकार ने बहादुर आदिवासी स्वतंत्रता सेनानियों की स्मृति में समर्पित 15 नवंबर को आदिवासी गौरव दिवस घोषित किया है। 15 नवंबर निम्नलिखित में से किस आदिवासी नेता की जयंती है?

  1. बिरसा मुंडा
  2. अल्लूरी सीताराम राजू
  3. तिलका मांझी
  4. टंटिया भील

Explanation :

Government of India has declared 15th November as Janjatiya Gaurav Divas dedicated to the memory of brave tribal freedom fighters.

  • Janjatiya Gaurav Divas dedicated to the memory of brave tribal freedom fighters so that coming generations could know about their sacrifices about the country.
  • India’s freedom struggle was strengthened by several movements by tribal communities such as Santhals, Tamars, Kols, Bhils, Khasis and Mizos to name a few.
  • November 15 is the birth anniversary of Birsa Munda who is revered as Bhagwan by tribal communities across the country.
  • Birsa Munda fought bravely against the country against the exploitative system of the British colonial system and spearheaded movement against British oppression giving a call for ‘Ulgulan’ (Revolution).
  • The declaration acknowledges the glorious history and cultural heritage of tribal communities.
  • The day will be celebrated every year and would recognize the efforts of the tribals for preservation of cultural heritage and promotion of Indian values of valour, hospitality and national pride.

Q) With reference to the Consumer Price Index, consider the following statements:

  1. The Consumer Price Index is a comprehensive measure used for estimation of price changes in a basket of goods and services representative of consumption expenditure in an economy.
  2. CPI for Industrial Workers (IW) is compiled and released by the Labour Bureau in the Ministry of Labour.

Which of the above statements is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

उपभोक्ता मूल्य सूचकांक के संदर्भ में निम्नलिखित कथनों पर विचार कीजिये:

  1. उपभोक्ता मूल्य सूचकांक एक अर्थव्यवस्था में उपभोग व्यय के प्रतिनिधि वस्तुओं और सेवाओं की एक टोकरी में मूल्य परिवर्तन के अनुमान के लिए उपयोग किया जाने वाला एक व्यापक उपाय है।
  2. औद्योगिक श्रमिकों के लिए CPI (IW) श्रम मंत्रालय में श्रम ब्यूरो द्वारा संकलित और जारी किया जाता है।

उपरोक्त कथनों में से कौन-सा/से सही है/हैं?

  1. केवल 1
  2. केवल 2
  3. 1 और 2 दोनों
  4. न तो 1 और न ही 2

Consumer Price Index:

  • The Consumer Price Index is a comprehensive measure used for estimation of price changes in a basket of goods and services representative of consumption expenditure in an economy.
  • It is one of the most important statistics for an economy and is generally based on the weighted average of the prices of commodities and gives an idea of the cost of living.
  • The percentage change in this index over a period of time gives the amount of inflation over that specific period, i.e. the increase in prices of a representative basket of goods consumed.

Categories of CPI:

  • At the national level, there are four Consumer Price Index (CPI) numbers. These are:
    • CPI for Industrial Workers (IW) – Base Year 2016
    • CPI for Agricultural Labourers (AL) and CPI for Rural Labourers (RL) – Base Year 1986-87
    • CPI (Rural/Urban/combined) – Base Year 2012
  • While the first three are compiled and released by the Labour Bureau in the Ministry of Labour, the fourth one is released by the NSO in the Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation.

Q) The Ninth Schedule was introduced in the Constitution of India during the prime ministership of

  1.  Jawaharlal Nehru
  2.  Lal Bahadur Shastri
  3.  Indira Gandhi
  4.  Morarji Desai

नौवीं अनुसूची को भारत के संविधान में किसके प्रधानमंत्रित्व काल में पेश किया गया था

  1.  जवाहरलाल नेहरू
  2.  लाल बहादुर शास्त्री
  3.  इंदिरा गांधी
  4.  मोरारजी देसाई

Explanation:

  • The first amendment to the Indian Constitution added the Ninth Schedule to it. It was introduced by the Nehru Government, on 10 May 1951 to address judicial decisions and pronouncements especially about the chapter on fundamental rights.

Q) India is part of which of the following global initiatives?

  1. International North South Transport Corridors (INSTC)
  2. Chabahar port
  3. Belt and Road initiative

Select the correct answer code:

  1. 2 only
  2. 1, 2
  3. 2, 3
  4. 1, 2, 3

भारत निम्नलिखित में से किस वैश्विक पहल का हिस्सा है?

  1. अंतर्राष्ट्रीय उत्तर दक्षिण परिवहन गलियारा (INSTC)
  2. चाबहार बंदरगाह
  3. बेल्ट एंड रोड पहल

सही उत्तर कूट का चयन करें:

  1. केवल 2
  2. 1, 2
  3. 2, 3
  4. 1, 2, 3
  • Iran’s Chabahar port and the International North South Transport Corridors (INSTC) that India is a part of, aiming to improve bilateral trade with Central Asian countries.
  • India has refused to join the Belt and Road initiative (BRI), comprising a series of infrastructure projects that pass through Pakistan, Afghanistan and Central Asia.

Q) Consider the following statements:

  1. The Parliament of India can place a particular law in the Ninth Schedule of the Constitution of India.
  2. The validity of a law passed in the Ninth Schedule cannot be examined by any court and no judgment can be made on it.

Which of the above statements is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

निम्नलिखित कथनों पर विचार करें:

  1. भारत की संसद भारत के संविधान की नौवीं अनुसूची में एक विशेष कानून रख सकती है।
  2. नौवीं अनुसूची में पारित कानून की वैधता की जांच किसी भी अदालत द्वारा नहीं की जा सकती है और न ही इस पर कोई फैसला सुनाया जा सकता है।

उपरोक्त कथनों में से कौन-सा/से सही है/हैं?

  1. केवल 1
  2. केवल 2
  3. 1 और 2 दोनों
  4. न तो 1 और न ही 2

Explanation:

  • Statement 1: Once a law is enacted and included in the Ninth Schedule, it gets protection under Article 31-B (validation of certain Acts and Regulations) and is not subject to judicial scrutiny.
  • The Ninth Schedule (Article 31-B) was introduced by the former Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru to keep certain laws particularly those on land reforms beyond the scope of judicial review.
  • Statement 2: The mandate of ninth schedule is to prevent judicial scrutiny but in a landmark ruling in IR Coelho versus State of Tamil Nadu, 2007, the Supreme Court of India ruled that all laws (including those in the Ninth Schedule) would be open to Judicial Review if they violated the basic structure of the constitution. The Supreme Court judgment laid that the laws placed under Ninth Schedule after April 24, 1973. Shall be open to challenge in court if they violated fundamental rights guaranteed under Article 14, 19, 20 and 21 of the Constitution

Mains Practice Question:

Q) The Right of Children to Free and Compulsory Education Act, 2009 remains inadequate in promoting incentive-based systems for children’s education without generating awareness about the importance of schooling. (UPSC 2022) (200 words)

स्कूली शिक्षा के महत्व के बारे में जागरूकता पैदा किए बिना बच्चों की शिक्षा के लिए प्रोत्साहन-आधारित प्रणालियों को बढ़ावा देने के लिए बच्चों को मुफ्त और अनिवार्य शिक्षा का अधिकार अधिनियम, 2009 अपर्याप्त है। विश्लेषण। (यूपीएससी 2022) (200 शब्द)

UPSC Mains Result 2022

 

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