The Hindu Newspaper Analysis for UPSC
- The Prime Minister’s meeting with Mr. Xi, their first such in three years, was remarkable, given that they had not had any public interaction at the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation summit at Samarkand in September, despite standing next to each other during the joint photo call. The two leaders last held a bilateral meeting in November 2019. They have not publicly spoken at all since the April 2020 stand-off at the Line of Actual Control and the killing of soldiers at Galwan in June that year.
- At the G-20 leaders’ banquet however, Mr. Modi was seen standing up from the dinner table where he was seated next to U.S. Secretary of State Antony Blinken, and turning around to greet Mr. Xi as he walked in.
- India’s merchandise exports shrank 16.7% in October to $29.8 billion as the global slowdown dented overseas demand for the country’s goods.
- The first contraction since February 2021 dragged outbound shipments below the $30-billion level for the first time in 20 months.
- Imports grew 5.7% year-on-year to $56.7 billion, widening the trade deficit for the month to $26.91 billion, as per data released by the Commerce Ministry on Tuesday.
- As the global population reached eight billion, the United Nations on Tuesday said that India’s population growth appeared to be stabilising, which shows that the country’s national policies and health systems, including access to family planning services, are working.
- The world population touched eight billion on Tuesday and India was the largest contributor to the milestone, having added 177 million people of the last billion people born in the world, the UN said.
- “The good news is that India’s population growth appears to be stabilising. The Total Fertility Rate — more or less the average number of children born per woman — has declined from 2.2 to 2.0 at the national level,” the United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA) said.
- A total of 31 States and Union Territories (constituting 69.7% of the country’s population) have achieved fertility rates below the replacement level of 2.1, it said.
- The main reasons for the decline in fertility include increase in adoption of modern family planning methods (from 47.8% in 2015-16 to 56.5% in 2019-21) and a reduction in unmet need for family planning by four percentage points over the same period, it said. “This indicates significant improvements in access to family planning related information and services. In summary, it shows that India’s national population policies and health systems are working,” the UN organisation said.
- India is a youthful nation with the largest cohort of young people anywhere in the world, with major potential to achieve its demographic dividend. While many parts of the world are ageing, India’s youthful population can be a global resource to solve global problems, the UNFPA said.
United Nations Population Fund
- It is a subsidiary organ of the UN General Assembly and works as a sexual and reproductive health agency.
- The UN Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC) establishes its mandate.
- It was established as a trust fund in 1967 and began operations in 1969.
- In 1987, it was officially renamed the United Nations Population Fund but the original abbreviation, ‘UNFPA’ for the United Nations Fund for Population Activities was retained.
- UNFPA works directly to tackle Sustainable Development Goals on health (SDG3), education (SDG4) and gender equality (SDG5).
- UNFPA is not supported by the UN budget, instead, it is entirely supported by voluntary contributions of donor governments, intergovernmental organizations, the private sector, foundations and individuals.
- Climate change is a global problem that requires cooperation between all nations.
- Since the COP26 United Nations climate summit in Glasgow 12 months ago, countries have only promised to do one fiftieth of what is needed to stay on track to keep temperatures within 1.5°C of pre-industrial levels.
- As many nations seek to reduce their reliance on Russia, the world is experiencing a “gold rush” for new fossil fuel projects. These are cast as temporary supply measures, but they risk locking the planet into irreversible damage. All this underlines that humanity has to end its addiction to fossil fuels. If renewable energy was the norm, there would be no climate emergency.
- Rich countries account for just one in eight people in the world today but are responsible for half of greenhouse gases.
- This is no time for apathy or complacency; the urgency of the moment is upon us. The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change must be about the power of argument, not the argument of power.
- Key to maintaining the consensus in Egypt is not to let disputes over trade and war in Ukraine block global climate diplomacy. The United Nations process may not be perfect.
- The Cabinet Resolution of January 1, 2015 constituting the National Institution for Transforming India (NITI Aayog) has articulated
- One of the main mandates of NITI Aayog is to foster cooperative federalism through structured support initiatives and mechanisms with the States on a continuous basis, recognising that strong States make a strong nation.
- The worsening winter air quality in north India has yet again brought into public focus the harmful effects of air pollution on our health.
- The effects of exposure to bad air are felt in every organ of the body, and most deeply by the vulnerable in society — children, the elderly, pregnant women, and those with pre-existing health conditions. In India, in 2019, 17.8% of all deaths and 11.5% of respiratory, cardiovascular and other related diseases are attributable to high exposure to pollution (The Lancet).
- We are at a crossroads in our fight against air pollution. The contemporaneous approach to tackling this issue has been tried for decades and has proven ineffective. The choice lies before us now on whether we want to centre science and health in what will likely be a long road to fixing this problem, or continue down the same path that has led us to this smoggy status quo.
- The 2022 Lancet Countdown on Health and Climate Change: Health at the Mercy of Fossil Fuels points out that the world’s reliance on fossil fuels increases the risk of disease, food insecurity and other illnesses related to heat.
- Every dimension of food security is being affected by climate change. Higher temperatures threaten crop yields directly, with the growth season shortening for many cereal crops. Extreme weather events disrupt supply chains, thereby undermining food availability, access, stability, and utilisation.
- In this context, the report calls for global coordination, funding, transparency, and cooperation between governments, communities, civil society, businesses, and public health leaders, to reduce or prevent the vulnerabilities the world is exposed to.
- The changing climate is affecting the spread of infectious disease, raising the risk of emerging diseases and co-epidemics. For instance, it records that coastal waters are becoming more suited for the transmission of Vibrio pathogens. It also says that the number of months suitable for malaria transmission has increased in the highland areas of the Americas and Africa.
- The WHO has predicted that between 2030 and 2050, climate change is expected to cause approximately 2,50,000 additional deaths per year, from malnutrition, malaria, diarrhoea and heat stress.
- According to the World Bank, India would need to invest $840 billion over the next 15 years, that is, an average of $55 billion each year, to meet the demands of its fast-growing urban population. Its latest report, titled ‘Financing India’s Urban Infrastructure Needs: Constraints to Commercial Financing and Prospects for Policy Action’, puts forth the urgent requirement to leverage greater private and commercial investments to meet the emerging financial gaps.
- The report argues that the overall funding base to raise commercial revenues “appears to be low” owing to weak fiscal performance of cities and low absorptive capacity for execution of projects.
Q) CSIR-AROMA Mission is under which of the following union ministry?
- Ministry of Science & Technology
- Ministry of Finance
- Ministry of Home Affairs
- None of the above
CSIR-AROMA मिशन निम्नलिखित में से किस केंद्रीय मंत्रालय के अधीन है?
- विज्ञान और प्रौद्योगिकी मंत्रालय
- वित्त मंत्रालय
- गृह मंत्रालय
- उपरोक्त में से कोई नहीं
- CSIR-AROMA Mission, under the Ministry of Science & Technology aims to develop and disseminate the aroma-related science and technology to reach the end user/clients of CSIR: Farmers, industry and society.
- Under the Centre’s ‘One District, One Product’ scheme, Lavender has been designated as the Doda brand product.
- Lavandula (common name lavender) is a genus of 47 known species of flowering plants in the mint family, Lamiaceae.
- The flowers may be blue, violet or lilac in the wild species, occasionally blackish purple or yellowish.
- Lavender has been used over centuries in traditional medicine and cosmetics.
- These flowers grow in temperate areas and are drought-resistant crops.
- A single Lavender plant bears flowers for 15 years, needs low maintenance and can be used from the second year of plantation.
Q) Which of the following regions of India is the natural habitat of the `Great Indian Hornbill’?
- Sand deserts of northwest India
- Great Himalayan Range
- Salt marshes of western Gujarat
- Western Ghats
भारत का निम्नलिखित में से कौन सा क्षेत्र ‘ग्रेट इंडियन हॉर्नबिल’ का प्राकृतिक आवास है?
- उत्तर पश्चिम भारत के रेत के रेगिस्तान
- ग्रेट हिमालयन रेंज
- पश्चिमी गुजरात के नमक दलदल
- पश्चिमी घाट
- The great Indian hornbill is one of the larger members of the hornbill family. It is found in the Indian subcontinent and Southeast Asia. It is naturally found in Western Ghats.
- The Hornbill Festival is a celebration held every year from 1 – 10 December, in Kohima, Nagaland.
- The festival was first held in the year 2000.
- It is named after the Indian hornbill, the large and colourful forest bird which is displayed in the folklore of most of the state’s tribes.
- Festival highlights include the traditional Naga Morungs exhibition and the sale of arts and crafts, food stalls, herbal medicine stalls, flower shows and sales, cultural medley – songs and dances, fashion shows etc.
Q) With reference to the Constitution of India, prohibitions or limitations or provisions contained in ordinary laws cannot act as prohibitions or limitations on the constitutional powers under Article 142. It could mean which one of the following?
- The decisions taken by the Election Commission of India while discharging its duties cannot be challenged in any court of law.
- The Supreme Court of India is not constrained in the exercise of its powers by laws made by the Parliament.
- In the event of a grave financial crisis in the country, the President of India can declare a Financial Emergency without the counsel from the Cabinet.
- State Legislatures cannot make laws on certain matters without the concurrence of the Union Legislature.
भारत के संविधान के संदर्भ में, सामान्य कानूनों में निहित निषेध या सीमाएं या प्रावधान अनुच्छेद 142 के तहत संवैधानिक शक्तियों पर प्रतिबंध या सीमाओं के रूप में कार्य नहीं कर सकते हैं। इसका मतलब निम्न में से कौन सा हो सकता है?
- भारत के चुनाव आयोग द्वारा अपने कर्तव्यों का निर्वहन करते हुए लिए गए निर्णयों को किसी भी अदालत में चुनौती नहीं दी जा सकती है।
- भारत का सर्वोच्च न्यायालय संसद द्वारा बनाए गए कानूनों द्वारा अपनी शक्तियों के प्रयोग में बाध्य नहीं है।
- देश में गंभीर वित्तीय संकट की स्थिति में, भारत के राष्ट्रपति मंत्रिमंडल से परामर्श के बिना वित्तीय आपातकाल की घोषणा कर सकते हैं।
- राज्य विधानमंडल कुछ मामलों पर संघ विधानमंडल की सहमति के बिना कानून नहीं बना सकते हैं।
- As per Article 142, “The Supreme Court in the exercise of its jurisdiction may pass such decree or make such order as is necessary for doing complete justice in any cause or matter pending before it, and any decree so passed or orders so made shall be enforceable throughout the territory of India in such manner as may be prescribed by or under any law made by Parliament and, until provision in that behalf is so made, in such manner as the President may by order prescribe”.
Q) Consider the following gatemen.
- Aadhaar card can be used as a proof of citizenship or domicile.
- Once issued, Aadhaar number cannot be deactivated or omitted by the Issuing Authority.
Which of the above statements is/are Incorrect?
- 1 only
- 2 only
- Both 1 and 2
- Neither 1 nor 2
निम्नलिखित द्वारपालों पर विचार कीजिए।
- आधार कार्ड का उपयोग नागरिकता या अधिवास के प्रमाण के रूप में किया जा सकता है।
- एक बार जारी होने के बाद, आधार संख्या को जारीकर्ता प्राधिकारी द्वारा निष्क्रिय या छोड़ा नहीं जा सकता है।
उपरोक्त में से कौन सा/से कथन गलत है/हैं?
- केवल 1
- केवल 2
- 1 और 2 दोनों
- न तो 1 और न ही 2
- Statement 1 is wrong because as per Calcutta HC decision Aadhar Card is not a proof of citizenship.
- Statement 2 is wrong because UIDAI’s update policy version 2.3 (available on the official website uidai.gov.in) has provisions for deactivation of Aadhaar, which are given below:
- If within 2 years of attaining age 5, the child’s biometrics are not updated in Aadhaar database, his/her Aadhaar number will be deactivated (no authentication permissible). It will be reactivated once biometrics are updated in database.
- If within 2 years of attaining age 15, the child’s biometrics are not updated in Aadhaar database, his/her Aadhaar number will be deactivated (no authentication permissible). It will be reactivated once biometrics are updated in database.
- If Resident has not biometrically authenticated in 5 years, his/her One Time Password (OTP) based authentication services will be deactivated. They will be re-activated once the resident biometrically authenticates.
“Rule of Law Index” is released by which of the following?
- Amnesty International
- International Court of Justice
- The Office of UN Commissioner for Human Rights
- World Justice Project
“कानून का नियम सूचकांक” निम्नलिखित में से किसके द्वारा जारी किया जाता है?
- एमनेस्टी इंटरनेशनल
- अंतर्राष्ट्रीय न्यायालय न्याय
- मानवाधिकार के लिए संयुक्त राष्ट्र आयुक्त का कार्यालय
- विश्व न्याय परियोजना
- The World Justice Project released this report, saying the global Rule of Law has declined for the fifth year in a row.
- India has been ranked 77 (out of 140 countries)
- Topped by Denmark
Mains Practice Question:
Q) “Earn while you learn scheme needs to be strengthened to make vocational education and skill training meaningful.” Comment. (150 Words)
“जब आप सीखते हैं तब कमाएं व्यावसायिक शिक्षा और कौशल प्रशिक्षण को सार्थक बनाने के लिए योजना को मजबूत करने की आवश्यकता है।” टिप्पणी। (150 शब्द)
- The Ministry of Tourism is implementing a Scheme titled ‘Earn While You Learn’. It envisages to inculcate appropriate tourism travel traits and knowledge amongst trainees to enable them to work as ‘student volunteers’.
- This scheme provides short term training, dedicated to the travel industry, to college-going students pursuing graduation courses or graduates in the age group of 18 to 25 years.
Benefits of ‘Earn While You Learn’
- Program Provides opportunities to students to earn while learning to meet their expenses.
- Exposes the students to the world of work before actual employment.
- Gives students hands-on experience and confidence thereby prepares them better for taking up jobs in future.
- Enables the students to explore their subject preferences and develop them into a career.
Making vocational training meaningful
- Burden of providing for household expenses prevents many young people from undertaking vocational training which creates a void in daily income.
- Has the potential to attract more people towards undertaking such programmes when income is ensured.
- Give students hands-on experience and thereby prepare them better for taking up jobs in future.
- Help India reap its rich demographic dividend transition from a jobless growth economy to an employable economy.
Mains Practice Question:
Q) The Right of Children to Free and Compulsory Education Act, 2009 remains inadequate in promoting incentive-based systems for children’s education without generating awareness about the importance of schooling. (UPSC 2022) (200 words)
स्कूली शिक्षा के महत्व के बारे में जागरूकता पैदा किए बिना बच्चों की शिक्षा के लिए प्रोत्साहन-आधारित प्रणालियों को बढ़ावा देने के लिए बच्चों को मुफ्त और अनिवार्य शिक्षा का अधिकार अधिनियम, 2009 अपर्याप्त है। विश्लेषण। (यूपीएससी 2022) (200 शब्द)