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The Hindu Newspaper Analysis 15 November 2022

 

The Hindu Newspaper Analysis for UPSC

retail inflation
retail inflation

The Hindu Newspaper Analysis 12 November 2022

  • India’s retail inflation cooled to 6.77% in October from 7.41% in September, slipping below the 7% mark for the first time in three months and only the second time since April’s eight-year high mark of 7.8%.
  • This is the 10th month in a row that inflation has been over the 6% upper tolerance threshold mandated for the Reserve Bank of India (RBI). The last time consumer price inflation was below the 7% mark was in July, at 6.71%.
  • Economists expect the central bank’s Monetary Policy Committee, which earlier this month deliberated on explaining to the government its inability to meet the inflation target for three successive quarters, to continue increasing interest rates in December, but at a lower pace than the 50-basis point ((100 basis points equal one percentage point) increases seen in its last three reviews.

The Hindu Editorial Today

CPI
CPI
WPI
WPI
green hydrogen
green hydrogen
  • India announces long-term strategy at COP-27. It will help the nation be carbon neutral by 2070, a commitment made by Prime Minister at Glasgow last year, says Environment Minister
  • At the United Nations Conference of Parties (COP) in Sharm el-Sheikh, India on Monday announced its long-term strategy to transition to a “low emissions” pathway, which is premised on expanding its nuclear power capacity by at least threefold in the next decade, apart from becoming an international hub for producing green hydrogen and increasing the proportion of ethanol in petrol.

Basic and Background

  • The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change(UNFCCC) is an international environmental treaty which seeks to reduce atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases, with the aim of preventing dangerous anthropogenic interference with the earth’s climate system.
  • The UNFCCC, signed in 1992 at the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development also known as the Earth Summit, the Rio Summit or the Rio Conference
  • It is a framework which requires individual participating countries to commit to stabilizing greenhouse gas emissions.
  • There are 197 parties to the convention, who meet annually in Conferences of the Parties (COP) to assess progress in dealing with climate change.
freedom of religion
freedom of religion
  • The Supreme Court on Monday said religious conversions by means of force, allurement or fraud may “ultimately affect the security of the nation and freedom of religion and conscience of citizens” while directing the Centre to “step in” and clarify what it intends to do to curb compulsory or deceitful religious conversions.
  • “There may be freedom of religion, but there may not be freedom of religion by forced conversion… This is a very serious issue. Everybody has the right to choose their religion, but not by forced conversion or by giving temptation,” a Bench of Justices M.R. Shah and Hima Kohli said.

What is the constitutional status of Religious Conversion in India?

  • The Constitution of India, under Article 25 guarantees the right to freedom of religion as Fundamental Right on every citizen.
  • Article 25 guarantees the freedom of conscience, the freedom to profess, practice, and propagate religion to all citizens.
  • However, Article 25 does not give fundamental right status to the Right to conversion from one religion to another.
  • Supreme Court of India in Rev Stanislaus vs Madhya Pradesh, 1977 while considering the issue whether the fundamental right to practise and propagate religion includes the right to convert, held that the right to propagate does not include the right to convert.
Economic inequalities
Economic inequalities
  • The question before the Court was whether opportunities can be reserved for economically weaker persons regardless of their societal status whereas the Constitution allows affirmative action only for historically disadvantaged castes and communities.
  • Clearly, the shape of the economy is distorted. Decent jobs and social security are available to too few; good education and health care is not available to all.
  • Economic inequalities have been increasing in all countries, even the rich ones.
  • The rules of the economic game are now set by the wealthiest. They influence governments’ policies the most.
  • India has the largest number of working age persons in the world seeking work and better incomes. The Indian economy also has among the lowest employment elasticities (that is the number of jobs created with each unit of GDP growth).
  • India is becoming one of the most unequal societies in the world — socially and economically.
  • The country’s problem of dividing the economic pie to rectify both historical social and new economic discrimination cannot be resolved merely by judging whose needs are greater.
remove Iran from the U.N.’s Commission
remove Iran from the U.N.’s Commission
  • Iran’s brutal crackdown is arousing international attention and great concern. The American government and other western officials and rights activists have sought to remove Iran from the U.N.’s Commission on the Status of Women, the body focused on gender equality and the empowerment of women.
  • The UN Security Council has met informally to discuss Iran’s human rights violations and member countries decided to give the movement moral support.
  • A relevant question, however, is whether such protests have any potential to change the attitudes of a doctrinaire regime such as those in Iran and Afghanistan.
National Education Policy
National Education Policy
  • It is alarming that India ranks 132 out of 191 countries in the 2021 Human Development Index, which is a measure of a nation’s health, average income, and education.
  • The National Education Policy (NEP) of 2020 states, “A National Mission on Foundational Literacy and Numeracy will be set up… on priority… for attaining universal foundational literacy and numeracy in all primary schools, identifying state-wise targets and goals to be achieved by 2025, and closely tracking and monitoring progress of the same.” How do we achieve this ambitious objective?
  • Ever since the 1990 World Declaration on Education for All at the Jomtien Conference, concerted efforts have been made to bring all children to school.
  • In 1993, the Supreme Court ruled in Unni Krishnan v. State Of Andhra Pradeshthat the right to education for children up to age 14 is central and fundamental.
  • It is time for everyone from the Panchayat level to the Prime Minister to ensure that all children are in school and are learning by 2025.
  • Foundational literacy and numeracy are necessary to prepare a generation of learners who will secure for India high rates of economic progress and human well-being. The time to act is now.
Places of Worship Act
Places of Worship Act
  • The Union government on Monday sought more time from the Supreme Court to clarify its stand on the validity of the Places of Worship Act, saying “detailed consultations” are needed at a “particular level”. The 1991 Act protects the identity and character of religious places as they were on August 15, 1947.

What does the places of worship act, 1991 say?

  • The Act states that a place of worship’s religious nature must remain the same as it was on August 15, 1947.
  • It says no person shall convert any place of worship of any religious denomination into one of a different denomination or section.
  • It declares that all litigation, appeals, or other proceedings ongoing before any court or authority on August 15, 1947, involving converting the status of a place of worship, will cease as soon as the law takes effect. There will be no more legal action taken.

The following are exempt from these provisions:

  • Ancient and historical monuments and archaeological sites and remains that are covered by the Ancient Monuments and Archaeological Sites and Remains Act, 1958.
  • A suit that has been finally settled or disposed of; and any dispute that has been settled by the parties or conversion of any place that took place by acquiescence before the Act commenced.
  • The Act also does not apply to the place of worship commonly referred to as Ram Janmabhoomi-Babri Masjid in Ayodhya. This law will have an overriding effect over any other law in force.
G-20 is Recover Together
G-20 is Recover Together
  • The motto for this G-20 is Recover Together, Recover Stronger.
  • For the world, this is the first G-20 since Russia began the war in Ukraine and the west imposed sanctions on Russia.
  • Efforts will be made to build global consensus over issues that have clearly divided the world. For India, the importance of the summit of the world’s most advanced economies is that it is India’s turn to host the summit next.
  • Background: The G20 was formed in 1999 in the backdrop of the financial crisis of the late 1990s that hit East Asia and Southeast Asia in particular.
    • The first G20 Summit took place in 2008 in Washington DC, US.
  • About: G20 is a global grouping that aims to secure global financial stability by involving middle-income countries.
    • In addition to G20 Summits, the Sherpa meetings (that help in negotiations and building consensus), and other events are also organised throughout the year.
  • G20 Members: Full members of G20 are- Argentina, Australia, Brazil, Canada, China, France, Germany, India, Indonesia, Italy, Japan, Mexico, Russia, Saudi Arabia, South Africa, South Korea, Turkey, the United Kingdom, the United States and the European Union.
    • Each year, the presidency invites guest countries.
  • G20 Secretariat: The G20 has no permanent secretariat.

Q) Consider the following statements about the Collegium system:

  1. The collegium system is the way by which judges of the Supreme Court and High Courts are appointed and transferred.
  2. It is a five-member body, which is headed by the incumbent Chief Justice of India (CJI) and comprises the four other senior most judges of the court at that time.

Which of the above statements is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

कॉलेजियम प्रणाली के बारे में निम्नलिखित कथनों पर विचार करें:

  1. कॉलेजियम प्रणाली वह तरीका है जिसके द्वारा सर्वोच्च न्यायालय और उच्च न्यायालयों के न्यायाधीशों की नियुक्ति और स्थानांतरण किया जाता है।
  2. यह एक पांच सदस्यीय निकाय है, जिसकी अध्यक्षता भारत के मौजूदा मुख्य न्यायाधीश (सीजेआई) करते हैं और इसमें उस समय अदालत के चार अन्य वरिष्ठतम न्यायाधीश शामिल होते हैं।

उपरोक्त में से कौन सा/से कथन सही है/हैं?

  1. केवल 1
  2. केवल 2
  3. दोनों 1 और 2
  4. न तो 1 और न ही 2

Ans: (c)

Explanation:

  • The collegium system is the way by which judges of the SC and HCs are appointed and transferred.
  • It is a five-member body, which is headed by the incumbent Chief Justice of India (CJI) and comprises the four other senior most judges of the court at that time.
  • A High Court collegium is led by the incumbent Chief Justice and two other senior most judges of that court.

Q) Consider the following statements regarding appointment of Supreme Court judges.

  1. The Chief Justice of India and the Judges of the Supreme Court are appointed by the President of India.
  2. For appointing Judges of the Supreme Court, the recommendation of collegium to the President is binding during the first instance.

Which of the above statements is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

सर्वोच्च न्यायालय के न्यायाधीशों की नियुक्ति के संबंध में निम्नलिखित कथनों पर विचार करें।

  1. भारत के मुख्य न्यायाधीश और सर्वोच्च न्यायालय के न्यायाधीशों की नियुक्ति भारत के राष्ट्रपति द्वारा की जाती है।
  2. सर्वोच्च न्यायालय के न्यायाधीशों की नियुक्ति के लिए, राष्ट्रपति को कॉलेजियम की सिफारिश पहली बार में बाध्यकारी होती है।

उपरोक्त में से कौन सा/से कथन सही है/हैं?

  1. केवल 1
  2. केवल 2
  3. दोनों 1 और 2
  4. न तो 1 और न ही 2

Ans: (A)

Explanation:

  • The Chief Justice of India and the Judges of the Supreme Court are appointed by the President under clause (2) of Article 124 of the Constitution.
  • The names are recommended by the Collegium.
  • The collegium sends its final recommendation to the President of India for approval. The President can either accept it or reject it. In the case it is rejected, the recommendation comes back to the collegium. If the collegium reiterates its recommendation to the President, then he/she is bound by that recommendation.

Q) Who is the founder of the Indian space programme?

(a) Jawaharlal Nehru

(b) C.V. Raman

 (c) Vikram Sarabhai

(d) Abdul Kalam

भारतीय अंतरिक्ष कार्यक्रम के संस्थापक कौन हैं?

(A) जवाहरलाल नेहरू

(B) सी.वी. रमन

 (C) विक्रम साराभाई

(D) अब्दुल कलामी

Ans: (c)

Explanation:

  • Vikram Sarabhai is remembered as the Father of the Indian Space Program for his contributions to the field of space science. He founded the Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO) which eventually became the largest government space agency in the world.

Q) What is the ‘Greenhouse Gas Protocol’?

 (a) It is an international accounting tool for government and business leaders to understand, quantify and manage greenhouse gas emissions.

(b) It is an initiative of the United Nations to offer financial incentives to developing countries to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and to adopt eco-friendly technologies.

(c) It is an inter-governmental agreement ratified by all the member countries of the United Nations to reduce greenhouse gas emissions to specified levels by the year 2022.

(d) It is one of the multilateral REDD+ initiatives hosted by the World Bank

‘ग्रीनहाउस गैस प्रोटोकॉल’ क्या है?

 (A) यह ग्रीनहाउस गैस उत्सर्जन को समझने, मापने और प्रबंधित करने के लिए सरकार और व्यापार जगत के नेताओं के लिए एक अंतरराष्ट्रीय लेखा उपकरण है।

(B) यह ग्रीनहाउस गैस उत्सर्जन को कम करने और पर्यावरण के अनुकूल प्रौद्योगिकियों को अपनाने के लिए विकासशील देशों को वित्तीय प्रोत्साहन प्रदान करने के लिए संयुक्त राष्ट्र की एक पहल है।

(C) यह संयुक्त राष्ट्र के सभी सदस्य देशों द्वारा वर्ष 2022 तक ग्रीनहाउस गैस उत्सर्जन को निर्दिष्ट स्तरों तक कम करने के लिए अनुमोदित एक अंतर-सरकारी समझौता है।

(D) यह विश्व बैंक द्वारा आयोजित बहुपक्षीय आरईडीडी+ पहलों में से एक है

Ans: (a)

Explanation:

  • The Greenhouse Gas Protocol (GHG Protocol) is the most widely used international accounting tool for government and business leaders to understand, quantify, and manage greenhouse gas emissions.
  • It is a decade-long partnership between the World Resources Institute (WRI) and the World Business Council for Sustainable Development (WBCSD).
  • It is working with businesses, governments, and environmental groups around the world to build a new generation of credible and effective programs for tackling climate change.

Q) Which one of the following is the best description of ‘Vikram-S’, that was in the news recently?

(a) Amphibious warfare ship

(b) Nuclear-powered submarine

(c) Torpedo launch and recovery vessel

 (d) India’s first privately developed space launch vehicle

निम्नलिखित में से कौन सा ‘विक्रम-एस’ का सबसे अच्छा वर्णन है, जो हाल ही में खबरों में था?

(A) उभयचर युद्ध जहाज

(B) परमाणु संचालित पनडुब्बी

(C) टारपीडो लॉन्च और रिकवरी पोत

 (D) भारत का पहला निजी तौर पर विकसित अंतरिक्ष प्रक्षेपण यान

Ans: (d)

Explanation:

  • Vikram-S, India’s first privately developed launch vehicle, is set to take off from the Indian Space Research Organization’s (ISRO) launchpad in Sriharikota as part of Mission Prarambh (the beginning).

Mains Practice Question:

Q) “Earn while you learn scheme needs to be strengthened to make vocational education and skill training meaningful.” Comment. (150 Words)

“जब आप सीखते हैं तब कमाएं व्यावसायिक शिक्षा और कौशल प्रशिक्षण को सार्थक बनाने के लिए योजना को मजबूत करने की आवश्यकता है।” टिप्पणी। (150 शब्द)

 

UPSC Mains Result 2022

 

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