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The Hindu Newspaper Analysis 11 October 2022

 

The Hindu Newspaper Analysis for UPSC

Supreme Court Collegium
Supreme Court Collegium

The Hindu Newspaper Analysis 10 October 2022

  • The Supreme Court Collegium has resolved not to undertake any further deliberations on 10 names identified for consideration as the top court judges as the Law Ministry has already sent its request to Chief Justice of India U.U. Lalit to nominate his successor.
  • Justices D.Y. Chandrachud and S. Abdul Nazeer had objected to the CJI’s proposal to recommend names for appointment as Supreme Court judges through circulation.
  • Justices Sanjay Kishan Kaul and K.M. Joseph had concurred with the CJI’s proposal, the collegium resolution said.
  • The ‘First Judges Case’ (1981) ruled that the “consultation” with the CJI in the matter of appointments must be full and effective.
    • However, it rejected the idea that the CJI’s opinion, albeit carrying great weight, should have primacy.
  • The Second Judges Case (1993) introduced the Collegium system, holding that “consultation” really meant “concurrence”.
    • It added that it was not the CJI’s individual opinion, but an institutional opinion formed in consultation with the two senior-most judges in the Supreme Court.
  • On a Presidential Reference for its opinion, the Supreme Court, in the Third Judges Case (1998) expanded the Collegium to a five-member body, comprising the CJI and four of his senior-most colleagues.

The Hindu Editorial Today

official language of the Union
official language of the Union

What is the status of Hindi?

  • Under Article 343 of the Constitution, the official language of the Union shall be Hindi in Devanagari script.
  • In the constituent assembly discussions, it was decided that English would continue to be used for a period of 15 years.
  • The Constitution said that after 15 years, Parliament may by law decide on the use of English and the use of the Devanagari form of numbers for specified purposes.

 Article 351:

  • It is the Union government’s duty to promote the spread of Hindi so that it becomes “a medium of expression for all elements of the composite culture of India” and also to assimilate elements of forms and expressions from Hindustani and languages listed in the Eighth Schedule.

Eighth Schedule

  • About: The Eighth Schedule contains a list of languages in the country. Number of languages: Initially, there were 14 languages in the schedule, but now there are 22 languages.
  • No fixed procedure to add languages: There is no description of the sort of languages that are included or will be included in the Eighth Schedule.
violations of international law
violations of international law
  • Despite widespread global condemnation, including a resolution in March 2022 adopted by 141 countries in the United Nations General Assembly (UNGA) demanding that Russia immediately and unconditionally withdraw from Ukraine, Moscow brazenly continues with its illegal military offensive against Kyiv.
  • The resolutions by UNGA are not binding, but decisions by the International Court of Justice (ICJ) are. On Ukraine’s application, the ICJ, in a provisional measure ruling, again in March, ordered Russia to immediately suspend its military operations in Ukraine.
  • The newest item added to the long Russian list of barefaced violations of international law is the recent annexation of Donetsk, Luhansk, Zaporizhzhia, and Kherson — the four regions that are an integral part of Ukraine.
  • Just before invading Ukraine, he referred to Article 51 of the UN Charter (which provides for self-defence against an armed attack). Mr. Putin was wrong since Russia faced no aggression from Ukraine.
  • Under international law, Russia’s control over the four Ukrainian regions, before the so-called referendums, is known as ‘belligerent occupation’. Rules on belligerent occupation are explained under the Hague Convention of 1899 — the first treaty that laid down the laws of war.
supply chains for clean energy technologies
supply chains for clean energy technologies
  • In his Independence Day address, Prime Minister Narendra Modi exhorted the country to pursue aatmanirbharta in energy by focusing on clean energy technologies.
  • Therefore, securing access to key minerals such as lithium, cobalt, nickel and rare earth metals is critical for building resilient and indigenous supply chains for clean energy technologies.
  • First, reserves are often concentrated in regions that are geopolitically sensitive or fare poorly from an ease of doing business perspective. Second, a portion of existing production is controlled by geostrategic competitors.
  • As a first step towards the sourcing of strategic minerals, the Indian government established Khanij Bidesh India Limited (KABIL) in 2019 with the mandate to secure mineral supply for the domestic market.
Anti-Terror Exercise
Anti-Terror Exercise
  • Pakistan has been invited to the closing ceremony, on October 13, of the ongoing Joint Anti-Terror Exercise (JATE) within the ambit of the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO) being hosted by India, official and diplomatic sources confirmed.
  • “Pakistan delegation has been extended an invitation for the closing ceremony on the last day of JATE ‘Manesar Anti-terror 2022’,” a diplomatic source said, which was confirmed by official sources.

SCO Regional Anti-Terrorist Structure (RATS) 

  • About: It is a permanent body of SCO. It aims to counter extremism, terrorism, and separatism in the region. Its headquarters is in Tashkent, Uzbekistan.

Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO)

  • About:
    • It is a permanent intergovernmental international organisation of Eurasian Nations with a secretariat in Beijing.
  • Aim:
    • It is a political, economic and military organisation that aims at maintaining peace, security and stability in the region.
  • Origin: Journey from Shanghai Five to SCO
    • Shanghai Five emerged in 1996 from a series of border demarcation and demilitarization talks between 4 former USSR republics and China.
    • Kazakhstan, China, Kyrgyzstan, Russia and Tajikistan were members of the Shanghai Five.
    • With the accession of Uzbekistan to the group in 2001, the Shanghai Five was renamed the SCO.
    • The SCO Charter was signed in 2002 and entered into force in 2003.
  • Inclusion of India & Pakistan:
    • India and Pakistan both were initially observer states.
    • Both were given full membership in 2017.
  • Members:
    • Kazakhstan, China, Kyrgyzstan, Russia, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan, India, and Pakistan.
    • Recently, Iran’s bid to become a full member of the SCO has been approved.
  • Language:
    • The SCO’s official languages are Russian and Chinese.
  • Structure:  SCO Secretariat in Beijing & Executive committee in Tashkent.
grass roots
grass roots
  • Democratic decentralisation is barely alive in India. Over 25 years after the 73rd and 74th constitutional amendments (they mandated the establishment of panchayats and municipalities as elected local governments) devolved a range of powers and responsibilities and made them accountable to the people for their implementation, very little and actual progress has been made in this direction.
  • Local governments remain hamstrung and ineffective — mere agents to do the bidding of higher level governments. To curb these tendencies, gram sabhas and wards committees in urban areas have to be revitalised

Q) With reference to the Modhera Sun Temple, consider the following statements:

  1. The Modhera Sun Temple was made by King Bhima I of the Chalukya dynasty in the early 11th century.
  2. It is a temple made to honour the Sun God on the bank of River Ganga.

Which of the above statements is/are Incorrect?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

मोढेरा सूर्य मंदिर के संदर्भ में निम्नलिखित कथनों पर विचार कीजिएः

  1. मोढेरा सूर्य मंदिर 11वीं शताब्दी की शुरुआत में चालुक्य वंश के राजा भीम प्रथम द्वारा बनाया गया था।
  2. यह गंगा नदी के तट पर सूर्य देव के सम्मान में बना एक मंदिर है।

उपरोक्त में से कौन सा/से कथन गलत है/हैं?

  1. केवल 1
  2. केवल 2
  3. दोनों 1 और 2
  4. न तो 1 और न ही 2

Explanation :

Prime Minister Narendra Modi will be declaring Modhera in Gujarat as a 24 x 7 solar-powered village on October 9.

  • The Modhera Sun Temple was made by King Bhima I of the Chalukya dynasty in the early 11th century.
  • It is a temple made to honour the Sun God in Modhera village of Mehsana district on the bank of River Pushpavati.
  • The temple is designed in such a way that during every equinox, the first ray of the rising sun would fall on a diamond placed on the head of the Sun God. This would also light up the shrine with a golden glow.
  • The Sabha Mandap stands on 52 pillars, signifying the 52 weeks in a year. There are carvings of the sun on the walls to show its unity with air, water, earth and space.
  • In 2014, Modhera Sun Temple entered the list of UNESCO World Heritage Sites.
  • It enjoys the same significance as other two well-known sun-temples in Kashmir (Martand) and Orissa (Konark).
  • The Gujarat Tourism hosts a three-day dance festival every year, known as the Uttarardha Mahotsav, at the temple every January after Makar Sankranti festival.

Q) The Kerch Strait connects which of the following seas?

  1. Azov Sea and Black Sea.
  2. Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman.
  3. Andaman Sea and the South China Sea
  4. None of the above

केर्च जलडमरूमध्य निम्नलिखित में से किस समुद्र को जोड़ता है?

  1. आज़ोव सागर और काला सागर।
  2. फारस की खाड़ी और ओमान की खाड़ी।
  3. अंडमान सागर और दक्षिण चीन सागर
  4. उपरोक्त में से कोई नहीं
Kerch Strait
Kerch Strait

Q) Consider the following statements regarding Governor’s legislative powers.

  1. If a bill passed by the state legislature endangers the position of the state high court, the Governor shall reserve the bill for consideration of the President.
  2. If a bill sent by Governor for the reconsideration of the State legislature is passed again without amendments, the Governor is under no constitutional obligation to give his assent to the bill.

Which of the above statements is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

राज्यपाल की विधायी शक्तियों के संबंध में निम्नलिखित कथनों पर विचार करें।

  1. यदि राज्य विधायिका द्वारा पारित विधेयक राज्य के उच्च न्यायालय की स्थिति को खतरे में डालता है, तो राज्यपाल राष्ट्रपति के विचार के लिए विधेयक को सुरक्षित रखेगा।
  2. यदि राज्यपाल द्वारा राज्य विधायिका के पुनर्विचार के लिए भेजा गया विधेयक बिना किसी संशोधन के फिर से पारित हो जाता है, तो राज्यपाल पर विधेयक को अपनी सहमति देने का कोई संवैधानिक दायित्व नहीं है।

उपरोक्त में से कौन सा/से कथन सही है/हैं?

  1. केवल 1
  2. केवल 2
  3. दोनों 1 और 2
  4. न तो 1 और न ही 2

Article 200 provides that when a Bill passed by the State Legislature, is presented to the Governor, the Governor shall declare—

  • (a) that he assents to the Bill; or
  • (b) that he withholds assent therefrom; or
  • (c) that he reserves the Bill for the President’s consideration; or
  • (d) the Governor may, as soon as possible, return the Bill (other than a Money Bill) with a message for re-consideration by the State Legislature. But, if the Bill is again passed by the Legislature with or without amendment, the Governor shall not withhold assent therefrom; or
  • (e) if in the opinion of the Governor, the Bill, if it became law, would so derogate from the powers of the High Court as to endanger its constitutional position, he shall not assent to but shall reserve it for the consideration of the President.

Q) Consider the following statements regarding Open Market Operations.

  1. Open Market Operations refers to buying and selling of bonds issued by the Government in the open market.
  2. Selling of a bond by RBI leads to increases in the total amount of reserves in the economy and thus increases the money supply.

Which of the above statements is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

ओपन मार्केट ऑपरेशंस के संबंध में निम्नलिखित कथनों पर विचार करें।

  1. ओपन मार्केट ऑपरेशंस से तात्पर्य खुले बाजार में सरकार द्वारा जारी बांडों की खरीद और बिक्री से है।
  2. आरबीआई द्वारा बांड की बिक्री से अर्थव्यवस्था में कुल भंडार में वृद्धि होती है और इस प्रकार मुद्रा आपूर्ति में वृद्धि होती है।

उपरोक्त में से कौन सा/से कथन सही है/हैं?

  1. केवल 1
  2. केवल 2
  3. दोनों 1 और 2
  4. न तो 1 और न ही 2
  • Open Market Operations refers to buying and selling of bonds issued by the Government in the open market. This purchase and sale is entrusted to the Central bank on behalf of the Government.
  • When RBI buys a Government bond in the open market, it pays for it by giving a cheque. This cheque increases the total amount of reserves in the economy and thus increases the money supply.
  • Selling of a bond by RBI (to private individuals or institutions) leads to reduction in quantity of reserves and hence the money supply.

Q) Consider the following statements.

  1. Jawaharlal Nehru and Subhash Chandra Bose jointly set up the Independence for India League.
  2. National Planning Committee was set up by Subhash Chandra Bose in 1938.

Which of the above statements is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

निम्नलिखित कथनों पर विचार करें।

  1. जवाहरलाल नेहरू और सुभाष चंद्र बोस ने संयुक्त रूप से इंडिया लीग के लिए स्वतंत्रता की स्थापना की।
  2. राष्ट्रीय योजना समिति की स्थापना 1938 में सुभाष चंद्र बोस ने की थी।

उपरोक्त में से कौन सा/से कथन सही है/हैं?

  1. केवल 1
  2. केवल 2
  3. दोनों 1 और 2
  4. न तो 1 और न ही 2
  • Jawaharlal Nehru and Subhash Chandra Bose rejected the idea of Dominion status by Nehru report and jointly set up the Independence for India League.
  • National Planning Committee was set up in 1938 by Subhash Chandra Bose who was persuaded by Meghnad Saha.

Mains Practice Question:

Q) Explain how do subsidies affect the cropping pattern, crop diversity and economy of farmers? (150 words)

बताएं कि सब्सिडी फसल पैटर्न, फसल विविधता और किसानों की अर्थव्यवस्था को कैसे प्रभावित करती है? (150 शब्द)

Introduction:

  • An agricultural subsidy is an incentive paid by the government to the agricultural organizations as a supplement of their income to maintain the supply of the agricultural commodities.
  • In India, the subsidy covers fertilizer, irrigation, equipment, credit subsidy, seed subsidy, export subsidy, etc. Fertilizer subsidy is provided by the Central government and the state government provides subsidies on water and irrigation.

Body:

Cropping pattern

  • Subsidies are directly responsible to cropping pattern of an area. The crops that receive better and more attractive subsidies is always selected for growing. The better the subsidy larger is the area of a particular crop in a region.
  • Ex: Sugarcane crops are better subsidised in form of loans and remuneration and hence are widely grown.

Crop diversity

  • If subsidies are not restricted to a particular crop and instead widely distributed among various crops then crop diversity is bound to increase. This is because farmers are more attracted for growing a crop which has support in form of subsidies.
  • Ex: Haryana government had announced subsidies for crops other than paddy and wheat so as to increase crop diversity.

Economy of farmers

  • Subsidies can enhance the economic condition of farmers tremendously. Subsidies will reduce the need for borrowing at high interest rates and will help in taking care of initial costs. These will ultimately boost the profit margin.

Significance on small and marginal farmers

Crop insurance

  • Crop insurance acts as cover against any incidents that can destroy crops and push a farmer towards poverty, especially small and marginal farmers. By paying a small amount as premium, farmers can be assured of profits in the future.

MSP

  • Minimum Selling Price ensures that farming becomes a profitable profession and rural economy is boosted. By providing a certain amount as MSP that covers cost of growing and a profit margin, income of small farmers will increase regardless of market prices.

Food processing

  • Food processing industries act as fixed market for small farmers who do not have the required resources to sell their produce to far places. These industries will provide the required materials such as seeds, fertilizers in addition to good rates in return for compulsory selling to them.

Mains Practice Question:

Q) “The role of media as a watchdog in a democracy”. Explain. (150 words)

“लोकतंत्र में एक प्रहरी के रूप में मीडिया की भूमिका”। समझाना। (150 शब्द)

The Hindu Newspaper Analysis 12 October 2022

 

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