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The Hindu Newspaper Analysis 10 November 2022

 

The Hindu Newspaper Analysis for UPSC

Governor Arif Mohammed Khan
Governor Arif Mohammed Khan

The Hindu Newspaper Analysis 9 November 2022

  • In the latest escalation of its running battle with Governor Arif Mohammed Khan, the Kerala government on Wednesday decided to remove him as Chancellor of State universities, seeking to replace him with “renowned academic experts”.
  • The State Cabinet on Wednesday resolved to request the Governor himself to promulgate an ordinance removing him from the position. This would divest him of his powers as Chancellor, and at one stroke, render the Raj Bhavan remote from all aspects of university governance.
  • In an official statement, the Cabinet noted that the M.M. Punchhi Commission, constituted in 2007 by the then-Congress-led Union government to study Centre-State relations, had vouched against granting Governors the power of Chancellors.
  • In most cases, the Governor of the state is the ex-officio chancellor of the universities in that state.
  • While as Governor he functions with the aid and advice of the Council of Ministers, as Chancellor he acts independently of the Council of Ministers and takes his own decisions on all University matters.
  • The original intent of making Governors hold the office of Chancellor and vesting some statutory powers on them was to insulate universities from political influence.

The Hindu Editorial Today

uplinking and downlinking of TV channels,
uplinking and downlinking of TV channels,
  • The Union Cabinet has approved new guidelines for uplinking and downlinking of TV channels, under which all stations holding permission — except for foreign channels and where it may not be feasible — will have to broadcast content on issues of national importance and social relevance for at least 30 minutes every day.
  • The eight listed themes include education and spread of literacy; agriculture and rural development; health and family welfare; science and technology; welfare of women; welfare of the weaker sections of society; protection of environment and of cultural heritage; and national integration.
Ministry of Home Affairs
Ministry of Home Affairs
  • The Ministry of Home Affairs (MHA) convened a conference in late October in the capital, which saw the participation of the Union Home Minister, a few State Home Ministers and police chiefs.
  • The first Home Minister of independent India, Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel, would have been dismayed by the politics in Centre-State relations in a matter as serious as policing.
  • It is distressing that there is still conflict between the MHA and some States over utilising talent in the IPS and the sharing of resources available in the States.
  • We are also witness to frequent spats between States and the Centre over the use or alleged misuse of the Central Bureau of Investigation (CBI)
  • ‘Police’ is a State subject under the distribution of powers laid down in the Constitution of India. But that does not mean the Union government has no say in the matter.
ground realities
ground realities
  • The law must stay in tune with the times, and consider ground realities
  • The judges said they were motivated to make this recommendation, having encountered several cases relating to minor girls over the age of 16 years (but below 18 years) having fallen in love and eloped with the boy, and wondered why the consent of the girl in a sexual relationship is not factored in, especially when charges are made out under provisions of the POCSO Act.
  • The Act was enacted to protect children from sexual abuse, and it raised the age of consent for sexual intercourse from 16 to 18 years.
  • Once the sexual act is confirmed, the POCSO Act is slapped on the boy, who may sometimes be a minor, or barely of legal age for marriage, and the consequences of being prosecuted for penetrative sexual assault are life altering, as they are meant to be.
  • There is no doubt that children are vulnerable, and must be protected from forced attempts to sexually assault or groom them with an eye on exploitation.
  • However, the realities of adolescent attraction and the ascertainment of consent, 16 years or above, must be considered pertinent to investigation and prosecution.
  • t may be remembered that the Justice J.S. Verma Committee on Amendments to Criminal Law also recommended that the age of consent be reduced to 16, and necessary amendments be made in the POCSO Act.
Tamil Nadu Governor R.N. Ravi
Tamil Nadu Governor R.N. Ravi
  • The presentation of a memorandum against Tamil Nadu Governor R.N. Ravi by MPs of the ruling DMK-led Secular Progressive Alliance to President Droupadi Murmu is yet another reflection of the fractured relationship between the DMK regime and the Governor.
  • Irrespective of their differences, this unfortunate development could have been avoided with some effort and reasoning on both sides.

About Governor

  • He/she is the Chief Executive Head of a State.
    • Like the President of India, he is a nominal (titular or constitutional) head and also acts as an agent of the central government. Therefore, the office of the governor has a dual role.
  • Articles 153 to 167 in Part VI of the Constitution deal with the State Executive, which comprises the Governor, the Chief Minister, the Council of Ministers and the Advocate General of the State.
    • There is no office of Vice-Governor (in the state) like that of Vice-President at the Centre.
    • Usually, there is a governor for each state, however, the 7thConstitutional Amendment Act, 1956 facilitated the appointment of the same person as a governor for two or more states.
  • Appointment
    • The Governor is neither directly elected by the people nor indirectly elected by a specially constituted electoral college as is the case with the President.
    • He/she is appointed by the President by warrant under his hand and seal.
two-finger test
two-finger test
  • On October 31, the Supreme Court declared that any person conducting the ‘two-finger test’ on rape or sexual assault survivors will be found guilty of misconduct.
  • In 2013, too, in Lillu v. State of Haryana, the Supreme Court had held that the two-finger test violates the right of rape survivors.
  • Section 53A of the Evidence Act states that previous sexual experience “shall not be relevant to the issue of consent or the quality of consent” in prosecutions of sexual offences.
  • It is important to note that the doctor’s medical opinion has a vital bearing on the outcome of a criminal case.
  • interaction between the Health Ministry and the Home Ministry (or the police department) is limited.
Higher education in India is entering
Higher education in India is entering
  • Higher education in India is entering a worrying phase due to the unprecedented impact of COVID-19 on school education.
  • On the one hand, with policies mandating the promotion of students, promotion rates at the secondary school level rose significantly and repetition rates nosedived during the pandemic years (2020-21 and 2021-22).
  • On the other, the inability to attend physical school and the lack of access to digital education caused a massive drop in learning levels after the COVID-19 outbreak.
  • Simply put, compared to students from the pre-COVID-19 years, more students were promoted from secondary to higher secondary school and graduated from school to college during the pandemic years even though their learning outcomes were poor.
Justice Dhananjaya Yashwant Chandrachud
Justice Dhananjaya Yashwant Chandrachud
  • Justice Dhananjaya Yashwant Chandrachud was sworn in as the 50th Chief Justice of India (CJI) by President Droupadi Murmu at a brief ceremony at the Rashtrapati Bhavan in New Delhi on Wednesday.
  • His father, Y.V. Chandrachud, holds the distinction of being the longest-serving Chief Justice, who headed the judiciary from February 22, 1978 to July 11, 1985.
  • Chief Justice Chandrachud, who describes dissent as the “safety valve of democracy”, has been part of several Constitution Benches and landmark verdicts of the top court, including judgments on the Ayodhya land dispute, and the right to privacy.

Appointment of Chief Justice

  • The CJI and the Judges of the SC are appointed by the President under clause (2) of Article 124 of the Constitution.
  • From 1950 to 1973, the practice has been to appoint the senior most judge of the SC as the CJI.
  • This established convention was violated in 1973 when A N Ray was appointed as the Chief Justice of India by superseding three senior judges.
  • Again in 1977, M U Beg was appointed as the chief justice of India by superseding the then senior-most judge.
  • This discretion of the government was curtailed by the SC in the Second Judges Case (1993), in which the SC ruled that the senior most judge should alone be appointed to the office of the CJI.

Appointment of Judges

  • The other judges are appointed by the President after consultation with the CJI and other judges of the SC and the HCs as he deems necessary.
  • The consultation with the CJI is obligatory in the case of the appointment of a judge other than CJI.

Qualifications of Judges

  • Should be a citizen of India.
  • Should have been a judge of an HC (or HCs in succession) for five years.
  • Should have been an advocate of an HC (or HCs in succession) for ten years.
  • Should be a distinguished jurist in the opinion of the President.
  • The Constitution has not prescribed minimum age for appointment as a judge of the SC.
Groundwater extraction in India
Groundwater extraction in India
  • Groundwater extraction in India saw an 18-year decline, according to an assessment by the Central Ground Water Board (CGWB) made public on Wednesday.
  • “A detailed analysis of the information collected from the assessment indicates increase in ground water recharge which may mainly be attributed to increase in recharge from canal seepage, return flow of irrigation water and recharges from water bodies/tanks & water conservation structures.
  • Further, analysis indicates improvement in ground water conditions in 909 assessment units in the country when compared with 2017 assessment data. In addition, overall decrease in number of over-exploited units and decrease in stage of groundwater extraction level have also been observed,” the Ministry of Water Resources said in a statement.

Q) With reference to Air Quality Index (AQI) consider the following statements:

  1. It was launched by the central government in 2014 as part of the Swachh Bharat campaign.
  2. The pollutants measured include PM 10, PM 2.5, Nitrogen Dioxide, Ozone and Carbon.

Which of the above statements is/are Not correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

वायु गुणवत्ता सूचकांक (एक्यूआई) के संदर्भ में निम्नलिखित कथनों पर विचार कीजिएः

  1. इसे केंद्र सरकार द्वारा 2014 में स्वच्छ भारत अभियान के हिस्से के रूप में लॉन्च किया गया था।
  2. मापा गया प्रदूषकों में पीएम 10, पीएम 2.5, नाइट्रोजन डाइऑक्साइड, ओजोन और कार्बन शामिल हैं।

उपरोक्त में से कौन सा/से कथन सही नहीं है/हैं?

  1. केवल 1
  2. केवल 2
  3. दोनों 1 और 2
  4. तो 1 और ही 2

Explanation :

Recently, the air quality in Delhi remained in the very poor category on Air Quality Index (AQI).

  • Launched by the central government in 2014 as part of the Swachh Bharat campaign, the AQI was to help simplify the common understanding of pollution.
  • The AQI transforms complex air quality data of various pollutants into a single number (index value), nomenclature and colour. The pollutants measured include PM 10, PM 2.5, Nitrogen Dioxide, Ozone, Carbon, etc.
  • The colour-coded AQI index helps the public and the government understand the condition of the air and what subsequent measures are to be taken to combat the situation, based on its severity.

Q) With reference to G-20, consider the following statements:

  1. It operates without a permanent secretariat or staff.
  2. India, China and the United States are its member countries.

Which of the above statements is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

जी-20 के संदर्भ में निम्नलिखित कथनों पर विचार कीजिएः

  1. यह एक स्थायी सचिवालय या कर्मचारियों के बिना संचालित होता है।
  2. भारत, चीन और संयुक्त राज्य अमेरिका इसके सदस्य देश हैं।

उपरोक्त में से कौन सा/से कथन सही है/हैं?

  1. केवल 1
  2. केवल 2
  3. दोनों 1 और 2
  4. न तो 1 और न ही 2

Explanation :

Prime Minister will unveil the logo, theme and website of India’s G20 Presidency on 8th November 2022.

  • G20 Presidency offers India an opportunity to contribute to the global agenda on pressing issues of international importance.
  • What is G20? G20 is the premier forum for international economic cooperation representing around 85% of the global GDP, over 75% of the global trade, and about two-thirds of the world population.
  • Origin and Evolution:
    • The G20 was formed in 1999 in the backdrop of the financial crisis of the late 1990s that hit East Asia and Southeast Asia in particular. Its aim was to secure global financial stability by involving middle-income countries.
    • The first G20 Summit took place in 2008 in Washington DC, US.
  • The members of the G20 are: Argentina, Australia, Brazil, Canada, China, France, Germany, India, Indonesia, Italy, Japan, Republic of Korea, Mexico, Russia, Saudi Arabia, South Africa, Türkiye, the United Kingdom, the United States, and the European Union.
    • The G-20 operates without a permanent secretariat or staff.

Q) With reference to Law Commission of India, consider the following statements:

  1. It is a statutory body constituted by Legal Services Authorities Act 1987.
  2. The tenure of Law Commission is for three years.

Which of the above statements is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

भारतीय विधि आयोग के संदर्भ में निम्नलिखित कथनों पर विचार कीजिएः

  1. यह कानूनी सेवा प्राधिकरण अधिनियम 1987 द्वारा गठित एक वैधानिक निकाय है।
  2. विधि आयोग का कार्यकाल तीन वर्ष का होता है।

उपरोक्त में से कौन सा/से कथन सही है/हैं?

  1. केवल 1
  2. केवल 2
  3. दोनों 1 और 2
  4. न तो 1 और न ही 2

Explanation :

Recently, the Retired High Court Chief Justice Rituraj Awasthi has been appointed as the chairperson of the Law commission.

  • The appointment comes after more than two years after the 22nd Law Commission was notified on February 24, 2020.
  • Status: Law Commission of India is a non-statutory body and is constituted by a notification of the Government of India.
  • Background:
    • The Charter Act 1833 which was enacted by the British Parliament provided for the establishment of a Law Commission for consolidation and codification of Indian Laws.
    • In 1835, Lord Macaulay was appointed as Chairman of the First Law Commission.
  • Tenure: The tenure of Law Commission is for three years.

Q) With reference to Guru Nanak Dev, consider the following statements:

  1. He was the founder of Sikhism and is the first of the ten Sikh Gurus.
  2. He spread the message of ‘Ek Omkar’ which means that God is one and is present everywhere

Which of the above statements is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

गुरु नानक देव के संदर्भ में निम्नलिखित कथनों पर विचार कीजिएः

  1. वह सिख धर्म के संस्थापक थे और दस सिख गुरुओं में से पहले थे।
  2. उन्होंने ‘एक ओंकार’ का संदेश फैलाया जिसका अर्थ है कि ईश्वर एक है और हर जगह मौजूद है

उपरोक्त में से कौन सा/से कथन सही है/हैं?

  1. केवल 1
  2. केवल 2
  3. दोनों 1 और 2
  4. न तो 1 और न ही 2

Explanation :

The President of India, Smt. Droupadi Murmu has greeted fellow-citizens on the eve of birthday of Guru Nanak Dev Ji.

  • It will be observed as the 553rd birth anniversary of Guru Nanak Dev Ji. It is observed annually on the full moon date of the Kartik month or Kartik Purnima
  • Guru Nanak (1469 – 1539), also referred to as Baba Nanak was the founder of Sikhism and is the first of the ten Sikh Gurus.
  • He was born on April 15, 1469 in Rai Bhoi di Talvandi, now Nankana Sahib, Pakistan.
  • Guru Nanak Dev spread the message of ‘Ek Omkar’ which means that God is one and is present everywhere.
  • Guru Nanak Dev Ji believed one can connect to the almighty through sincere prayers. All his teachings are composed together to form the sacred book called Guru Granth Sahib – the central holy religious scripture of Sikhism.

Mains Practice Question:

Q) Why Addressing malnutrition is critical to laying a strong foundation for human development ?(150 words)

मानव विकास की मजबूत नींव रखने के लिए कुपोषण को संबोधित करना क्यों महत्वपूर्ण है? (150 शब्द)

UPSC Mains Result 2022

 

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