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The Hindu Newspaper Analysis 1 October 2022

 

The Hindu Newspaper Analysis for UPSC

RBI raises rate
RBI raises rate
RBI Policy
RBI Policy
RBI Rate Policy
RBI Rate Policy

The Hindu Newspaper Analysis 30 September 2022

Monetary Policy Committee (MPC)?

  • Origin: Under Section 45ZB of the amended (in 2016) RBI Act, 1934, the central government is empowered to constitute a six-member Monetary Policy Committee (MPC).
  • Objective: Further, Section 45ZB lays down that “the Monetary Policy Committee shall determine the Policy Rate required to achieve the inflation target”.
    • The decision of the Monetary Policy Committee shall be binding on the Bank.

The Hindu Editorial Today

Composition: Section 45ZB says the MPC shall consist of 6 members:

  • RBI Governor as its ex officio chairperson,
  • Deputy Governor in charge of monetary policy,
  • An officer of the Bank to be nominated by the Central Board,
  • Three persons to be appointed by the central government.
    • This category of appointments must be from “persons of ability, integrity and standing, having knowledge and experience in the field of economics or banking or finance or monetary policy”.
India ages
India ages
  • The United Nations marks today as International Day for Older Persons (October 1), as part of the organisation’s efforts to draw attention to healthy ageing.
  • Recently, a report by the UN Department of Economic and Social Affairs (UNDESA), “World Population Prospects 2022”, has projected big shifts in global demographic patterns in the coming decades.
  • As global birth rates stabilise and shrink, 16% of the world population by 2050 is expected to be made up of people over 65 years. India will be home to the largest population in the world which would include a large elderly sub-population.
  • n this, eye care service delivery is uniquely placed to be the first point-of-contact with the elderly and to also help with health surveillance and planning.
  • The prevalence of non-communicable diseases such as diabetes, hypertension and heart disease, or disabilities related to vision, hearing or mobility is higher among the elderly.
  • A comprehensive eye examination can be the first step towards enabling such a healthy and happy future for our elderly citizens.
No Discrimination
No Discrimination
  • The Supreme Court’s ruling holding that single and unmarried women have the same right to a medically safe abortion as married women is a necessary intervention to set right an anomaly between the letter of the law and its practice.
  • Anchored on the equality clause in the Constitution, as well as on the right to dignity, privacy and bodily autonomy of women, the Court has ruled that there is no rationale for excluding single or unmarried women from the categories of women who could seek abortion care after the completion of 20 weeks of pregnancy, but before 24 weeks.
  • The Delhi High Court had declined to allow the termination of the pregnancy of a 25-year-old woman who was in a consensual relationship, but did not want to carry the pregnancy to term after her partner declined to marry her.
  • The High Court took a technical view, as Rule 3B, which listed the women eligible for termination of pregnancy — such as rape survivors, minors, those with physical disabilities and mental illness — did not explicitly include single women who had become pregnant in a consensual relationship.
  • At a time when unsafe abortions remain a major cause of maternal mortality, it is a significant verdict that advances the cause of safe abortion services.
U.S. Sanctions
U.S. Sanctions
  • In a first such move against oil shipments to India, the U.S. Treasury department announced it had imposed sanctions against a Mumbai-based petrochemical company among several entities accused of selling Iranian petroleum products.
  • The company, Mumbai-based Tibalaji that was accused of purchasing shipments that were then sent to China, is the first Indian entity to face the U.S. designation under unilateral sanctions passed in 2018-19, after the U.S. Trump administration’s decision to walk out of the nuclear deal, or Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action (JCPOA) with Iran.
  • The deal, formally known as Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action (JCPOA).
  • The JCPOA was the result of prolonged negotiations from 2013 and 2015 between Iran and P5+1 (China, France, Russia, the United Kingdom, the United States + Germany).
  • Under the deal, Iran agreed to significantly cut its stores of centrifuges, enriched uranium and heavy-water, all key components for nuclear weapons.
Mortality Higher
Mortality Higher
  • The result of the first large-scale study of the Central Government’s National Clinical Registry for COVID-19 (NCRC) data, released recently by the Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR), states that hospital mortality among COVID patients in the country was higher among those admitted with chronic kidney and liver disease, malignancy and tuberculosis.
  • COVID-19 vaccine, irrespective of its type, reduced the odds of death by 50% with one dose and by 60% with two doses,” a senior ICMR official said.
SC Collegium
SC Collegium
  • The Supreme Court Collegium led by Chief Justice of India U.U. Lalit has recommended to the government transfer of Chief Justices of Orissa and Jammu and Kashmir High Courts.

History:

  • The Collegium of judges is the Supreme Court’s invention.
  • No mention in the constitution: It does not figure in the Constitution, which says judges of the Supreme Court and High Courts are appointed by the President and speaks of a process of consultation.

Pertains to:

  • It is a system under which appointments and transfers of judges are decided by a forum of the Chief Justice of India and the four senior-most judges of the Supreme Court. It has no place in the Indian Constitution.
  • The ‘First Judges Case’ (1981) ruled that the “consultation” with the CJI in the matter of appointments must be full and effective.
    • However, it rejected the idea that the CJI’s opinion, albeit carrying great weight, should have primacy.
  • The Second Judges Case (1993) introduced the Collegium system, holding that “consultation” really meant “concurrence”.
    • It added that it was not the CJI’s individual opinion, but an institutional opinion formed in consultation with the two senior-most judges in the Supreme Court.
  • On a Presidential Reference for its opinion, the Supreme Court, in the Third Judges Case (1998) expanded the Collegium to a five-member body, comprising the CJI and four of his senior-most colleagues.

The Hindu Newspaper Analysis 3 October 2022

 

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