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Target 2018 UPSC – Science & Technology Current Affairs – Expected Questions SET 2

By Dr. Ravi Agrahari

  • Ph.D. from IIT Delhi 
  • Recipient of JRF, SRF from CSIR
  • Working as a Scientist in IIT Delhi with the association of DST (Department of Science & Technology
  • Experience last 17 years for UPSC Exam with more than 500 selections
  • Author of Mc Graw Hill Publication of Science & Technology and Environmental Ecology

UNIT-1
WHAT TO READ AND HOW TO READ

Lecture 1
Institutional Setup, Renewable vs. Non renewable, Different nature of fuels: Solid and Liquid, Octane number, Cetane number, Knocking and Anti-knocking Agent
Lecture 2
Natural Gas, CNG, Biogas Plant, Gas Hydrates, Shale Gas, Cluster bean, PNG, LNG
Lecture 3
Solar Energy, Jawaharlal Nehru Solar Energy Mission, International Solar Alliance (ISA), Wind energy, Hydroelectricity, Battery, Fuel Cell, Microbial Fuel Cells (MFCs)
Lecture 4
Biomass gasification, Bio-char, Syngas, Biofuel and its generation, Bureau of Energy Generation
Lecture 5
Department of Atomic Energy, Basics of Nuclear Energy, Nuclear fission vs. Nuclear fusion, Three stage nuclear energy development programme of India, Feature of different nature of fuel, fissile vs. fissionable material, Moderator, Control Rod, Coolant
Lecture 6
Reactors, Location of nuclear reactor in the world, Working and future reactors of India, Jaitapur
Nuclear power plant, kudankulam nuclear plant, Nuclear energy data world wide, ITER, Nuclear
Lecture 7
Nuclear diplomacy and its various issues in Indian concern, IAEA, Additional Protocol, NPT,
NSG, MTCR, Wassenaar agreement, Australia Group
Lecture 8
Rural Electrification, Rural Electrification Policy 2005, Rajiv Gandhi Grameen Vidyutikaran Yojna,
Deendayal Upadhaya Gram Jyoti Yojana, Rural Feeder Segregation, Ujawal Discom Assurance
Yojana (UDAY), Unnat Jyoti by Affordable LEDs for All (UJALA), “NELP” (New Exploration Licensing Policy), HELP (Hydrocarbon Exploration & licensing policy), Bureau of Energy Efficiency Star Label, Net Metering

Reference Book

UNIT-II, Chapter-4

Structure of Energy Development in India: Renewable and Non-renewable Energy

1. It is possible to produce algae based biofuels, but what is/are the likely Limitation(s) of developing countries in promoting this industry?
[UPSC (Pre)—2017]
1. Production of algae based biofuels is possible in near only and not on continents.
2. Setting up and engineering the algae based biofuel production requires high level of expertise/technology until the construction is completed.
3. Economically viable production necessitates the setting up of large scale facilities which may raise ecological and social concerns.
Select the correct answer using the code given below:
(a) 1 and 2 only (b) 2 and 3 only
(c) 3 Only (d) 1,2 and 3
2. In which of the following regions of India are shale gas resources found?
[UPSC (Pre)- 2016]
1. Cambay Basin 2. Cauvery Basin
3. Krishna-Godavari Basin
Select the correct answer using the code given below:
(a) 1 and 2 only (b) 3 only
(c) 2 and 3 only (d) 1, 2 and 3
3. On which of the following can you find the Bureau of Energy Efficiency Star Label? [UPSC (Pre)- 2016]
1. Ceiling fans 2. Electric geysers
3. Tubular fluorescent lamps
Select the correct answer using the code given below:
(a) 1 and 2 only (b) 3 only
(c) 2 and 3 only (d) 1, 2 and 3
4. Consider the following statements: [UPSC (Pre) – 2016]
1. The International Solar Alliance was launched at the United Nations Climate Change Conference in 2015.
2. The Alliance includes all the member countries of the United Nations.
Which of the statements given above is/are correct?
(a) 1 only (b) 2 only
(c) Both 1 and 2 (d) Neither 1 nor 2
5. Which one of the following is a purpose of ‘UDAY’, a scheme of the Government? [UPSC (Pre) – 2016]
(a) Providing technical and financial assistance to start-up entrepreneurs in the field of renewable sources of energy
(b) Providing electricity to every household in the country by 2018
(c) Replacing the coal-based power plants with natural gas, nuclear, solar, wind and tidal power plants cover a period of time
(d) Providing for financial turnaround and revival of power
distribution companies
6. With reference to ‘fly ash’ produced by the power plants using coal as fuel, which of the following statements is/are correct? [UPSC (Pre) – 2015]
1. Fly ash can be used in the production of bricks for building construction.
2. Fly ash can be used as a replacement for some of the Portland cement contents of concrete.
3. Fly ash is made up of silicon dioxide and calcium oxide only, and does not contain any toxic elements.
Select the correct answer using the code given below:
(a) 1 and 2 (b) 2 only (c) 1 and 3 (d) 3 only
7. With reference to ‘fuel cells’ in which hydrogen-rich fuel and oxygen are used to generate electricity, consider the following statements: [UPSC (Pre) – 2015]
1. It pure hydrogen is used as a fuel, fuel cell emits heat and water as by products.
2. Fuel cells can be used for powering buildings and not for small devices like laptop computers,
3. Fuel cells produce electricity in the form of Alternating Current (AC).
Which of the statements given above is/are correct?
(a) 1 only (b) 2 and 3 only (c) 1and 3 only (d) 1, 2 and 3
8. With reference to the Indian Renewable Energy Development Agency Limited (IREDA), which of the following statements is/are correct? [UPSC (Pre) – 2015]
1. It is a Public Limited Government Company.
2. It is a Non-Banking Financial Company.
Select the correct answer using the code given below:
(a) 1 only (b) 2 only
(c) Both 1 and 2 (d) Neither 1 nor 2
9. With reference to two non-conventional energy sources called ‘coalbed methane’ and ‘shale gas’, consider the following ‘statements: [UPSC (Pre) – 2014]
1. Coalbed methane is the pure methane gas extracted from coal seams, while shale gas is a mixture of propane and butane only that can be extracted from fine-grained sedimentary
rocks.
2. In India, abundant coalbed methane sources exist, but so far no shale gas sources have been found.
Which of the statements given above is/are correct?
(a) 1 only (b) 2 only
(c) Both 1and 2 (d) Neither 1 nor 2
10. In India, cluster bean (Guar) is traditionally used as a vegetable or animal feed, but recently the cultivation of this has assumed significance. Which one of the following
statements is correct in this context? [UPSC (Pre) – 2014]
(a) The oil extracted from seeds is used in the manufacture of
biodegradable plastics
(b) The gum made from its seeds is used in the extraction of
shale gas
(c) The leaf extract of this plant has the properties of antihistamines
(d) It is a source of high quality biodiesel
11. Consider the following statements: [UPSC (Pre) – 2014]
1. Maize can be used for the production of starch.
2. Oil extracted from maize can be a feedstock for biodiesel.
3. Alcoholic beverages can be produced by using maize.
Which of the statements given above is/are correct?
(a) 1 only (b) 1 and 2 only
(c) 2 and 3 only (d) 1, 2 and 3
12. With reference to technologies for solar power production, consider the following statements: [UPSC (Pre) – 2014]
1. ‘Photovoltaics’ is a technology that generates electricity by direct conversion of light into
electricity, while ‘Solar Thermal’ is a technology that utilises the Sun’s rays to generate heat which is further used in electricity generation process.
2. Photovoltaics generates Alternating Current (AC), while Solar Thermal generates Direct Current (DC).
3. India has manufacturing base for Solar Thermal technology, but not for Photovoltaics.
Which of the statements given above is / are correct?
(a) 1 only (b) 2 and 3 only
(c) 1, 2 and 3 (d) None
13. With reference to the usefulness of the by-products of sugar Industry, which of the following statements is/are correct? [UPSC (Pre) – 2013]
1. Bagasse can be used as biomass fuel for the generation of energy.
2. Molasses can be used as one of the feedstocks for the production of synthetic chemical fertilisers.
3. Molasses can be used for the production of ethanol.
Select the correct answer using the codes given below.
(a) 1 only (b) 1 and 3 only
(b) 2 and 3 only (d) 1, 2 and 3
14. Which of the following is/are the characteristic/characteristics of Indian coal? [UPSC (Pre) – 2013]
1. High ash content 2. Low sulphur
15. Biomass gasification is considered to be one of the sustainable solutions to the power crisis in India. In this context, which of the following statements is/are correct? [UPSC (Pre) – 2012]
1. Coconut shells, groundnut shells and rice husk can be used in biomass gasification.
2. The combustible gases generated from biomass gasification consist of hydrogen and carbon dioxide only.
3. The cumbustible gases generated from biomass gasification can be used for direct heat generation but not in internal combustion engines.
Select the correct answer using the codes given below:
(a) 1 only (b) 2 and 3 only
(c) 1 and 3 only (d) 1, 2 and 3
16. Microbial fuel cells are considered a source sustainable energy. Why?
[UPSC (Pre) – 2011]
1. They use living organisms as catalysts generate electricity from certain substrates.
2. They use a variety of inorganic materials as substrates.
3. They can be installed in waste water treatment plants to cleanse water and produce electricity.
Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?
(a) 1 only (b) 2 and 3 only
(c) 1 and 3 only (d) 1, 2 and 3
17. Hydrogen fuel cell vehicles produce one of the following as “exhaust” (2010)
(a) NH3 (b) CH4
(c) H2O (d) H2O2
18. Other than Jatropha curcas, why is Pongamia pinnata also considered a good option for the production of bio- diesel in India? [UPSC (Pre)-2010]
1. Pongamia pinnata grows naturally in most of the arid regions of India
2. The seeds of Pongamia. pinnata are rich in lipid content of which nearly half is oleic acid
Which of the statements given above is/are correct?
(a) 1 only (b) 2 only
(c) Both 1 and 2 (d) Neither 1 nor 2
19. Given below are the names of four energy crops. Which one of them can be cultivated for ethanol? [UPSC
(Pre)-2010]
(a) Jatropha (b) Maize
(c) Pongamia (d) Sunflower

Reference Book

UNIT-II, Chapter-5

Nuclear Energy, Nuclear Fuel, Radioactive Element and Radioactivity

20. India is an important member of the ‘International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor’. If this experiment succeeds, what is the immediate advantage for India? [UPSC (Pre) – 2016]
(a) It can use thorium in place of uranium for power generation
(b) It can attain a global role in satellite navigation
(c) It can drastically improve the efficiency of its fission reactors in power generation
(d) It can build fusion reactors for power generation
21. To meet its rapidly growing energy demand, some opine that India should pursue research and development on thorium as the future fuel of nuclear energy. In this context, what advantage does thorium hold over uranium? [UPSC (Pre) – 2012]
1. Thorium is far more abundant in nature than uranium.
2. On the basis of per unit mass of mined mineral, thorium can generate more energy compared to natural uranium.
3. Thorium produces less harmful waste compared to uranium.
Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?
(a) 1 only (b) 2 and 3 only
(c) 1 and 3 only (d) 1, 2 and 3
22. The function of heavy water in a nuclear reactor is to [UPSC (Pre) – 2011]
(a) Slow down the speed of neutrons
(b) Increase the speed of neutrons.
(c) Cool down the reactor.
(d) Stop the nuclear reaction.
23. In which one of the following locations is the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER,) project to be built? [UPSC (Pre) – 2008]
(a) Northern Spain (b) Southern France
(c) Eastern Germany (d) Southern Italy

Reference Book

UNIT-II, Chapter-6
National and International Issues of Energy Generation and Its Utilisation

24. Consider the following statements [UPSC (Pre) 2017]
1. The Nuclear Security Summits are periodically held under the aegis of United Nation.
2. The International Panel on Fissile Materials is an organ of International Atomic Energy Agency.
Which of the statements given above is/are correct?
(a) 1 only (b) 2 Only
(c) Both 1 and 2 (d) Neither 1 nor 2
25. The “New START’ treaty was in the news. What is this treaty? [UPSC (Pre) – 2011]
(a) It is a’ bilateral strategic nuclear arms reduction treaty between the USA and the Russian Federation.
(b) It is a multilateral energy security cooperation treaty among the members of the East Asia Summit.
(c) It is a treaty between the Russian Federation and the European Union for the energy security cooperation.
(d) It is a multilateral cooperation treaty among the BRICS countries for the promotion of trade.
26. Recently the USA decided to support Indian’s membership in multilateral export control regimes called the “Australia group” and the “Wassenaar arrangement”. What is the difference between them? [UPSC (Pre) 2011]
1. The Australia group is an informal arrangement which aims to allow exporting countries to minimize the risk of assisting chemical and biological weapons proliferation, whereas the wassenaar arrangement is a formal group under the OECD holding identical objectives.
2. The Australia group comprises predominantly of Asian, Affrican and North American countries, whereas the member countries of wassenaar arrangement are pre-dominantly from
the European union and American continents.
Which of the statements given above is/are correct?
(a) 1 only (b) 2 only
(c) Both 1 and 2 (d) Neither 1 nor 2


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