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Daily PIB Analysis For UPSC/IAS | 23rd April 19 | Download PDF

  •  Core area: includes protected areas, as they act as reference points on the natural state of the ecosystems represented by the biosphere reserves. Information from these core areas may be used to assess the sustainability of activities, or the maintenance of environmental quality, in surrounding areas. Managers of the core areas may contribute resources to projects developed with residents, businesses and other partners of the biosphere reserve.
  •  Buffer zone: surrounds or is contiguous to the core area. Activities are organized so they do not hinder the conservation objectives of the core area, but rather help to protect it. The buffer zone might be an area for experimental research, or may involve ways to manage natural vegetation, agricultural land, forests, fisheries or ranchland to enhance overall quality of production while conserving natural processes and biodiversity. This zone may also accommodate education, training, tourism, and recreation facilities. In many biosphere reserves the buffer zone is regarded as an area in which human use is less intensive than what might be found in the transition zone.
  •  Transition Zone, or Area of Cooperation: the large outer area of a reserve where people live and work, using the natural resources of the area in a sustainable manner. The term ‘area of cooperation’ underscores the role of cooperation as the main tool to achieve the objectives of the biosphere reserve. It is here that the local communities, conservation agencies, scientists, civil associations, cultural groups, businesses and other stakeholders agree to work together to manage and use the area in a sustainable way that will benefit the people who live there.


  1. Vishakha Guidelines were a set of procedural guidelines for use in India in cases of sexual harassment.
  2. These are 1st hand applied guidelines on the sexual harassment cases at workplace in India
  • Choose correct

(A)Only 1
(B)Only 2

  • In 1997, the Supreme Court passed a landmark judgment in the same Vishaka case laying down guidelines to be followed by establishments in dealing with complaints about sexual harassment.
  • Vishaka Guidelines were stipulated by the Supreme Court of India, in Vishakha and others v State of Rajasthan case in 1997, regarding sexual harassment at workplace. The court stated that these guidelines were to be implemented until legislation is passed to deal with the issue. The court decided that the consideration of “International Conventions and norms are significant for the purpose of interpretation of the guarantee of gender equality, right to work with human dignity in Articles 14, 15 19(1)(g) and 21 of the Constitution and the safeguards against sexual harassment implicit therein.”
  • the Vishaka Guidelines are not sufficient for legal compliance for employers as the same has been replaced by a full-fledged statute of the Parliament. Although the statute mostly retains the framework provided in the Guidelines, there are significant differences and it is the statute that the employers must follow. For instance, the definition of sexual harassment has significantly changed.
  • From this perspective, the Vishaka Guidelines is of only historical and academic importance now. It will also be relevant in cases that were brought up before 2013 enactment of the law.


  •  According to the FRBM Rules the government cannot guarantee more than ______per cent of the GDP of the respective financial year to CPSE/entities.
  1. 1
  2. 5
  3. 2.5
  4. 0.5


  • Mosquirix is a
  1. Asteroid
  2. Spacecraft
  3. Vaccine
  4. Tablet
  • African Nation, Malawi will be undertaking large scale pilot tests for the world’s most advanced experimental malaria vaccine in a bid to prevent the disease that kills hundreds of thousands across Africa and Asia every year.
  • Vaccine for Malaria under the trade name Mosquirix has been developed by British pharmaceutical giant GlaxoSmithKline in partnership with the PATH Malaria Vaccine Initiative.
  •  Four successive doses of the vaccines must be administered on a strict timetable for it to work.


  1. Project 15Bravo (Project 15B) is aimed at adding state-of-the-art warships to the naval fleet.
  2. The Indian Navy has launched its 1 st Guided Missile destroyer, INS Imphal at Mazgaon Docks as part of its Project 15B.
  • Choose correct

(A)Only 1
(B)Only 2

    • Project 15Bravo (Project 15B) is aimed at adding state-of-the-art warships to the naval fleet.
    • INS Vishakhapatnam was the first Project 15B ship and was launched in April 2015, while the second ship, INS Mormugao, was launched in September 2016.
    • The Indian Navy has launched its third guided missile destroyer, INS Imphal at Mazgaon Docks as part of its Project 15B.
    • Asian Tea Alliance, a union of five tea-growing and consuming countries was launched in Guizhou in China. The members of the alliance are the Indian Tea Association, China Tea Marketing Association, Indonesian Tea Marketing Association, Sri Lanka Tea Board and Japan Tea Association.
    • Earlier, Indian Tea Association and China Tea Marketing Association had signed an MoU to promote green and black tea consumption in major tea markets of Europe, the US, Russia and West Asia, besides India and China.
    • In 1969 at a UNESCO Conference in San Francisco, peace activist John McConnell proposed a day to honor the Earth and the concept of peace, to first be celebrated on March 21, 1970, the first day of spring in the northern hemisphere.

  • This day of nature’s equipoise was later sanctioned in a proclamation written by McConnell and signed by Secretary General U Thant at the United Nations.
  • A month later a separate Earth Day was founded by United States Senator Gaylord Nelson as an environmental teach-in first held on April 22, 1970. Nelson was later awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom award in recognition of his work.
  • While this April 22 Earth Day was focused on the United States, an organization launched by Denis Hayes, who was the original national coordinator in 1970, took it international in 1990 and organized events in 141 nations
  • Reporters Without Borders (RWB), also known under its original name Reporters Sans Frontières (RSF), is an international non-profit, non-governmental organization based in Paris that conducts political advocacy on issues relating to freedom of information and freedom of the press.
  • India’s media are being systematically subdued into silence
  • India is now ranked 140 out of 180 countries on the World Press Freedom Index
  • In 2017, it dropped three places, from 133 to 136; last year, it fell by two spots again, to 138. This steady deterioration ought not to be surprising; India was found to be one of the nations with the highest number of murders of journalists still pending investigation. The International Press Institute’s Death Watch report last year revealed that 12 journalists in India died in targeted killings, with few arrests having been made. The World Press Freedom Index 2019′ , topped by Norway which is followed by Finland, Sweden, Netherlands and Denmark



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