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Ministry of Health and Family Welfare

  • Health Ministry organises national workshop for Population Research Centres (PRCs)
  • PRCs need to reinvent themselves to become more relevant: Health Secretary
  • Ministry of Health and Family Welfare is organizing a two-day orientation workshop for Population Research Centres (PRCs) to highlight the various features of the flagship schemes of the Health Ministry for concurrent monitoring. Inaugurating the national workshop today at New Delhi, Ms. Preeti Sudan, Secretary (HFW) stated there is an urgent need for PRCs to reinvent themselves to become more relevant. She further stated that PRCs should integrate with the institute they are anchored in for more thoughtful insights of local and current issues to enrich their research. At the event, Ms. Preeti Sudan also released the Rural Health Statistics (2017-18) and a Compendium of Studies Conducted by the PRCS (2017-18).
  • Secretary (Health) further stated that Ayushman Bharat is a flagship program of the government and has two components – Health and Wellness Centres (HWCs) for Comprehensive Primary Health Care and Pradhan Mantri Jan Arogya Yojana (PMJAY) for secondary and tertiary care. These components are linked to address the major challenges of ensuring continuum of care, two-way referral system and gatekeeping.
  • Ministry of Health and Family Welfare (MoHFW) has established the network of 18 Population Research Centres (PRCs) spread over 17 major States/UTs, with the mandate to provide, inter alia, critical research based inputs related to the Health and Family Welfare programs and policies at the national and state levels. The PRCs are autonomous in nature and administratively under the control of their host University/Institutions. The scheme started with establishment of 2 PRCs at Delhi and Kerala in 1958 and expanded to 18 PRCs with latest inclusion of PRC, Sagar during 1999. Of these, 12 are attached to various Universities and 6 are in research institutions of national repute.
  • They are also involved in other studies given by Ministry such as Concurrent Evaluation of NRHM conducted by the Ministry throughout the country during 2008-09, large scale sample surveys of the Ministry like District Level Household survey (DLHS), National Family Health Survey (NFHS) and Longitudinal Ageing Study in India (LASI), All India study on “Rapid Appraisal of National Rural Health Mission (NRHM) Implementation in 36 Districts of 20 States of India” in the recent past. In addition, they also monitor important components of NHM Programme Implementation Plans. Till now, the PRCs have completed more than 3600 research studies since inception. They have more than 110 research papers published in prestigious international journals.
  • The PRCs were established to undertake research projects relating to family planning, demographic research and biological studies & qualitative aspect of population control, with a view to gainfully utilize the feedback from these research studies for plan formulation, strategies and policy interventions of ongoing schemes.


  1. Metals and Minerals Trading Corporation of India Limited is Asia’s biggest gold and silver importer
  2. MMTC has the distinction of being: Largest exporter of minerals from India
  3. Is India’s Largest Bullion Trader
  • Choose correct

(A) 1 & 2
(B) 2 & 3
(C) 1 & 3
(D) All

Ministry of Commerce & Industry

  • MMTC achie-.9++++++++++++++++ny has reported consolidated Profit after Tax of Rs 108.72 crore as against Rs 37.52 crore during last year. MMTC has further recommended dividend @30% on paid up equity shares capital for the year 2018-19.
  • MMTC Ltd., Metals and Minerals Trading Corporation of India, is one of the two highest earners of foreign exchange for India and India’s largest public sector trading body.
  • Not only handling the export of primary products such as coal, iron ore, and manufactured agro and industrial products, MMTC also imports important commodities such as ferrous and nonferrous metals for industry, and agricultural fertilizers.
  • MMTC’s diverse trade activities cover Third Country Trade, Joint Ventures and Link Deals and all modern forms of international trading. The Company has a vast international trade network, spanning almost in all countries in Asia, Europe, Africa, Oceania, America and also includes a wholly owned international subsidiary in Singapore, MTPL. It is one of the Miniratnas companies.
  • MMTC is one of the two highest foreign exchange earner for India (after petroleum refining companies).
  • It is the largest international trading company of India and
  • The first public sector enterprise to be accorded the status of Five Star Export Houses by Government of India for long standing contribution to exports
  • Being the largest player in bullion trade, including retailing, MMTC’s share was 146 tonnes of gold out of the total import of 600 tonnes of the precious metal in 2008-09
  • Today MMTC has the distinction of being:
  • Largest exporter of minerals from India
  • India’s Largest Bullion Trader
  • India’s largest importer of Steel-Coal


  • “This is a time for shedding tears. This diamond of india, this jewel of maharashtra, the prince of workers, is laid to eternal rest on the funeral ground. Look at him and try to emulate him. Everyone of you should look upon his life as a mode; to imitate and should try to fill the gap caused by his death. If you will do your level best to emulate him, he will feel glad even in the next world.
  • ” This great statement was made by tilak on the death of an eminent personality .He was :

(A) Mahatma Gandhi
(B) Gopal Krishan Gokhale
(C) Mohammad Ali Jinnah
(D) Lala Lajpat Rai

  • Despite being relatively poor, his family members ensured that Gokhale received an English education, which would place Gokhale in a position to obtain employment as a clerk or minor official in the British Raj. He studied in Rajaram college in kolhapur. Being one of the first generations of Indians to receive a university education, Gokhale graduated from Elphinstone College in 1884. Gokhale’s education tremendously influenced the course of his future career – in addition to learning English, he was exposed to western political thought and became a great admirer of theorists such as John Stuart Mill and Edmund Burke.

Political Mentor Of Gandhi

  • Gopal Krishna Gokhale sacrificed his life to the country. He was a great servant of India. He was worthy son of worthy land. He lived from 1866 to 1915. He neglected his health to some extent in serving to his country. His health was deteriorated. His diabetes had worsened, his heart was weak and he had difficulty breathing. He realized that this end was near. On his last day he was calm. He smiled and said, “I have had enjoyment in this world, now let me go and have it in another world.” In the evening he bade farewell to his two daughters and friends. Two hours passed and he died peacefully at 10:25 p.m. on February 19, 1915. Thus ended the life of the one, who was a true and distinguished disciple of Justice Ranade, a great liberal a scholar and guru of Mahatma Gandhi. There was profound grief in the city and in the country over the premature death of one of her great sons. Gokhale’s great contemporary, Lokamanya Tilak, had gone to sinhgad for rest as he himself was not keeping fit. A messenger was sent for his return.
  • Gokhale became a member of the Indian National Congress in 1889, as a protégé of social reformer Mahadev Govind Ranade.
  • Along with other contemporary leaders like Bal Gangadhar Tilak, Dadabhai Naoroji, Bipin Chandra Pal, Lala Lajpat Rai and Annie Besant, Gokhale fought for decades to obtain greater political representation and power over public affairs for common Indians. He was moderate in his views and attitudes, and sought to petition the British authorities by cultivating a process of dialogue and discussion which would yield greater British respect for Indian rights.
  • Gokhale had visited Ireland and had arranged for an Irish nationalist, Alfred Webb, to serve as President of the Indian National Congress in 1894
  • The following year, Gokhale became the Congress’s joint secretary along with Tilak. In many ways, Tilak and Gokhale’s early careers paralleled – both were Chitpavan Brahmin, both attended Elphinstone College, both became mathematics professors, and both were important members of the Deccan Education Society. When both became active in the Congress, however, the divergence of their views concerning how best to improve the lives of Indians became increasingly apparent
  • Gokhale’s first major confrontation with Tilak centred around one of his pet issues, the Age of Consent Bill introduced by the British Imperial Government, in 1891–92. Gokhale and his fellow liberal reformers, wishing to purge what they saw as superstitions and abuses in their native Hinduism, supported the Consent Bill to curb child marriage abuses.
  • TheDeccan Education Societyis an organisation that runs 43 education establishments in Maharashtra, India. It is based in Pune.
  • In 1880 Vishnushastri Chiplunkar and Bal Gangadhar Tilak established the New English School, one of the first native-run schools offering Western education in Pune. In 1884 they created the Deccan Education Society with Gopal Ganesh Agarkar, Mahadev Ballal Namjoshi, V. S. Apte, V. B. Kelkar, M. S. Gole and N. K. Dharap. Soon afterwards,they established Fergusson College with Tilak and Agharkar as early lecturers.
  • Though the Bill was not extreme, only raising the age of consent from ten to twelve, Tilak took issue with it; he did not object per se to the idea of moving towards the elimination of child marriage, but rather to the idea of British interference with Hindu tradition.
  • For Tilak, such reform movements were not to be sought under imperial rule when they would be enforced by the British, but rather after independence was achieved, when Indians would enforce it on themselves. The bill however became law in the Bombay Presidency. The two leaders also vied for the control of the Poona Sarvajanik Sabha, and the founding of the Deccan Sabha by Gokhale in 1896 was the consequence of Tilak coming out ahead.
  • In 1899, Gokhale was elected to the Bombay Legislative Council. He was elected to the Imperial Council of the Governor-General of India on 20 December 1901, and again on 22 May 1903 as nonofficiating member representing Bombay Province.
  •  In his autobiography, Gandhi calls Gokhale his mentor and guide. Gandhi also recognised Gokhale as an admirable leader and master politician, describing him as pure as crystal, gentle as a lamb, brave as a lion and chivalrous to a fault and the most perfect man in the political field. Despite his deep respect for Gokhale, however, Gandhi would reject Gokhale’s faith in western institutions as a means of achieving political reform and ultimately chose not to become a member of Gokhale’s Servants of India Society.
  • Gokhale was famously a mentor to Mahatma Gandhi in latter’s formative years. In 1912, Gokhale visited South Africa at Gandhi’s invitation. As a young barrister, Gandhi returned from his struggles against the Empire in South Africa and received personal guidance from Gokhale, including a knowledge and understanding of India and the issues confronting common Indians.
  • In 1905, when Gokhale was elected president of the Indian National Congress and was at the height of his political power, he founded the Servants of India Society to specifically further one of the causes dearest to his heart:
  •  The expansion of Indian education. For Gokhale, true political change in India would only be possible when a new generation of Indians became educated as to their civil and patriotic duty to their country and to each other.
  • Believing existing educational institutions and the Indian Civil Service did not do enough to provide Indians with opportunities to gain this political education, Gokhale hoped the Servants of India Society would fill this need.
  •  In his preamble to the SIS’s constitution, Gokhale wrote that “The Servants of India Society will train men prepared to devote their lives to the cause of country in a religious spirit, and will seek to promote, by all constitutional means, the national interests of the Indian people.” The Society took up the cause of promoting Indian education in earnest, and among its many projects organized mobile libraries, founded schools, and provided night classes for factory workers. Although the Society lost much of its vigour following Gokhale’s death, it still exists to this day, though its membership is small.
  • Born as Keshav Gangadhar Tilak, was an Indian nationalist, teacher, social reformer, lawyer and an independence activist. He was the first leader of the Indian Independence Movement. The British colonial authorities called him “The father of the Indian unrest.” He was also conferred with the title of “Lokmanya”, which means “accepted by the people (as their leader)”


  • Regarding sepoy mutiny of 1857 : Choose the correct options :
  1. The rebellion began on 10 May 1857 in the form of a mutiny of sepoys of the Company’s army in the garrison town of Meerut
  2. 81-year-old Mughal ruler, BAHADUR SHAH I, was declared the Emperor of Hindustan.
  3. Bengal Army recruited “more localized, caste-neutral armies” that “did not prefer high-caste men.“
  4. The grease used on these cartridges of Enfield P-53 rifle was rumoured to include tallow derived from pork, which would be offensive to Hindus, and beef, which would be offensive to Muslims.

(A) Only 1
(B) 2,3 & 4
(C) All are correct
(D) none

  • The Indian Rebellion of 1857 was a major, but ultimately unsuccessful, uprising in India between 1857–58 against the rule of the British East India Company, which functioned as a sovereign power on behalf of the British Crown. The event is known by many names, including the
  • Sepoy Mutiny,
  • the Indian Mutiny,
  • the Great Rebellion,
  • the Revolt of 1857,
  • the Indian Insurrection, and
  • India’s First War of Independence.
  •  The rebellion began on 10 May 1857 in the form of a mutiny of sepoys of the Company’s army in the garrison town of Meerut, 40 miles northeast of Delhi (now Old Delhi). It then erupted into other mutinies and civilian rebellions chiefly in the upper Gangetic plain and central India
  •  and was contained only with the rebels’ defeat in Gwalior on 20 June 1858.
  • On 1 November 1858, the British granted amnesty to all rebels not involved in murder, though they did not declare the hostilities formally to have ended until 8 July 1859.
  • After the outbreak of the mutiny in Meerut, the rebels very quickly reached Delhi, whose 81-year-old Mughal ruler, Bahadur Shah Zafar, was declared the Emperor of Hindustan.
  • Soon, the rebels also captured large tracts of the North-Western Provinces and Awadh (Oudh)
  • In 1772, when Warren Hastings was appointed India’s first Governor-General, one of his first undertakings was the rapid expansion of the Company’s army. Since the sepoys from Bengal – many of whom had fought against the Company in the Battles of Plassey and Buxar – were now suspect in British eyes, Hastings recruited farther west from the highcaste rural Rajputs and Bhumihar of Awadh and Bihar, a practice that continued for the next 75 years.
  • However, in order to forestall any social friction, the Company also took action to adapt its military practices to the requirements of their religious rituals. Consequently, these soldiers dined in separate facilities; in addition, overseas service, considered polluting to their caste, was not required of them, and the army soon came officially to recognise Hindu festivals. “This encouragement of high caste ritual status, however, left the government vulnerable to protest, even mutiny, whenever the sepoys detected infringement of their prerogatives.” Stokes argues that “The British scrupulously avoided interference with the social structure of the village community which remained largely intact.”
  • In the early years of Company rule, it tolerated and even encouraged the caste privileges and customs within the Bengal Army, which recruited its regular soldiers almost exclusively amongst the landowning Brahmins and Rajputs of the Bihar and Awadh regions.
  • These soldiers were known as Purbiyas.
  • The civilian rebellion was more multifarious. The rebels consisted of three groups: the feudal nobility, rural landlords called taluqdars, and the peasants.
  •  After the annexation of Oudh (Awadh) by the East India Company in 1856, many sepoys were disquieted both from losing their perquisites, as landed gentry, in the Oudh courts, and from the anticipation of any increased landrevenue payments that the annexation might bring about.
  • Other historians have stressed that by 1857, some Indian soldiers, interpreting the presence of missionaries as a sign of official intent, were convinced that the Company was masterminding mass conversions of Hindus and Muslims to Christianity.
  •  Although earlier in the 1830s, evangelicals such as William Carey and William Wilberforce had successfully clamoured for the passage of social reform, such as the abolition of sati and allowing the remarriage of Hindu widows,
  •  The sepoys were Indian soldiers who were recruited into the Company’s army. Just before the rebellion, there were over 300,000 sepoys in the army, compared to about 50,000 British.
  • The forces were divided into three presidency armies: Bombay, Madras, and Bengal.
  •  The Bengal Army recruited higher castes, such as Rajputs and Bhumihar, mostly from the Awadh and Bihar regions, and even restricted the enlistment of lower castes in 1855.
  •  In contrast, the Madras Army and Bombay Army were “more localized, casteneutral armies” that “did not prefer high-caste men.” The domination of higher castes in the Bengal Army has been blamed in part for initial mutinies that led to the rebellion.
  • However, changes in the terms of their professional service may have created resentment. As the extent of the East India Company’s jurisdiction expanded with victories in wars or annexation, the soldiers were now expected not only to serve in less familiar regions, such as in Burma, but also to make do without the “foreign service” remuneration that had previously been their due
  • A major cause of resentment that arose ten months prior to the outbreak of the rebellion was the General Service Enlistment Act of 25 July 1856. As noted above, men of the Bengal Army had been exempted from overseas service. Specifically, they were enlisted only for service in territories to which they could march. Governor-General Lord Dalhousie saw this as an anomaly, since all sepoys of the Madras and Bombay Armies and the six “General Service” battalions of the Bengal Army had accepted an obligation to serve overseas if required. As a result, the burden of providing contingents for active service in Burma, readily accessible only by sea, and China had fallen disproportionately on the two smaller Presidency Armies. As signed into effect by Lord Canning, Dalhousie’s successor as Governor-General, the act required only new recruits to the Bengal Army to accept a commitment for general service. However, serving high-caste sepoys were fearful that it would be eventually extended to them, as well as preventing sons following fathers into an army with a strong tradition of family service.
  • However, in August 1856, greased cartridge production was initiated at Fort William, Calcutta, following a British design.
  • The grease used included tallow supplied by the Indian firm of Gangadarh Banerji & Co. By January, rumours were abroad that the Enfield cartridges were greased with animal fat.
  • The final spark was provided by the ammunition for the new Enfield P-53 rifle. These rifles, which fired Minié balls, had a tighter fit than the earlier muskets, and used paper cartridges that came pregreased. To load the rifle, sepoys had to bite the cartridge open to release the powder. The grease used on these cartridges was rumoured to include tallow derived from beef, which would be offensive to Hindus, and pork , which would be offensive to Muslims
  • In the Punjab, the Sikh princes crucially helped the British by providing both soldiers and support.
  • Bahadur Shah I (14 October 1643 – 27 February 1712), the seventh Mughal emperor of India, ruled from 1707 until his death in 1712. In his youth, he conspired to overthrow his father Aurangzeb, the fifth Mughal emperor, and ascend to the throne a number of times.

 MCQ 4

  • Regqarding gandhi’s works
  1. Hind swaraj , published in hindi in 1909, became “the intellectual blueprint” for india’s independence movement
  2. The indian opinion was a newspaper to fight racial discrimination and win civil rights in india
  3. In south africa, he would publish young india, harijan, and navjivan
  • Choose incorrect options

(A) Only 1
(B) All
(C) 2 & 3
(D) None

  • Gandhi was a prolific writer. One of Gandhi’s earliest publications, Hind Swaraj , published in Gujarati in 1909, became “the intellectual blueprint” for India’s independence movement. The book was translated into English the next year, with a copyright legend that read “No Rights Reserved”.
  • For decades he edited several newspapers including Harijan in Gujarati, in Hindi and in the English language;
  • Indian Opinion while in South Africa and,

  • Young India, in English, and Navajivan, a Gujarati monthly, on his return to India.
  • Later, Navajivan was also published in Hindi. In addition, he wrote letters almost every day to individuals and newspapers.
  • Gandhi also wrote several books including his autobiography, The Story of My Experiments with Truth (Gujarātī “સત્યના પ્રયોગો અથવા આત્મકથા”), of which he bought the entire first edition to make sure it was reprinted.
  • His other autobiographies included: Satyagraha in South Africa about his struggle there, Hind Swaraj or Indian Home Rule , a political pamphlet, and a paraphrase in Gujarati of John Ruskin’s Unto This Last.
  • This last essay can be considered his programme on economics. He also wrote extensively on vegetarianism, diet and health, religion, social reforms, etc. Gandhi usually wrote in Gujarati, though he also revised the Hindi and English translations of his books.
  • Unto This Last had a very important impact on Gandhi’s philosophy. He discovered the book in March 1904 through Henry Polak, whom he had met in a vegetarian restaurant in South Africa. Polak was sub-editor of the Johannesburg paper The Critic.
  • Gandhi decided immediately not only to change his own life according to Ruskin’s teaching, but also to publish his own newspaper, Indian Opinion, from a farm where everybody would get the same salary, without distinction of function, race, or nationality. This, for that time, was quite revolutionary. Thus Gandhi created Phoenix Settlement.
  • Hind Swaraj or Indian Home Rule is a book written by Mohandas K. Gandhi in 1909. In it he expresses his views on Swaraj, modern civilization , mechanisation etc
  • Mohandas Gandhi wrote this book in his native language, Gujarati, while traveling from London to South Africa onboard SS Kildonan Castle between November 13 and November 22, 1909.

  • In the book Gandhi gives a diagnosis for the problems of humanity in modern times, the causes, and his remedy. The Gujarati edition was banned by the British on its publication in India. Gandhi then translated it into English. The English edition was not banned by the British, who concluded that the book would have little impact on the English-speaking Indians’ subservience to the British and British ideas. It has also been translated to French
  • The Story of My Experiments with Truth is the autobiography of Mohandas K. Gandhi, covering his life from early childhood through to 1921.
  • It was written in weekly instalments and published in his journal Navjivan from 1925 to 1929. Its English translation also appeared in installments in his other journal Young India.
  • It was initiated at the insistence of Swami Anand and other close co-workers of Gandhi, who encouraged him to explain the background of his public campaigns. In 1999, the book was designated as one of the “100 Best Spiritual Books of the 20th Century” by a committee of global spiritual and religious authorities
  • Gandhi wrote in his autobiography that the three most important modern influences in his life were Leo Tolstoy’s The Kingdom of God Is Within You, John Ruskin’s Unto This Last and the poet Shrimad Rajchandra(Raychandbhai)
  • After its initiation, The Story of My Experiments with Truth remained in the making for 4–5 years (including the time while Gandhi was imprisoned at Yerwada Central Jail near Pune, Maharashtra ), and then it first appeared as a series in the weekly Gujarati magazine Navjivan during 1925–28, which was published from Ahmedabad, India
  • The Indian Opinion was a newspaper established by Indian leader Mahatma Gandhi.
  • The publication was an important tool for the political movement led by Gandhi and the Indian National Congress to fight racial discrimination and win civil rights for the Indian immigrant community in South Africa.
  • It existed between 1903 and 1915.
  • The Natal Indian Congress (NIC) was an organisation that aimed to fight discrimination against Indians in South Africa.
  • The Natal Indian Congress was founded by Mahatma Gandhi in 1894.
  • A constitution was put in place on 22 August 1894.
  • With the support of the Natal Indian Congress, his clients and other notable Indians, Gandhi assembled a small staff and printing press. Madanjit Viyavaharik, the owner of the International Printing Press and The first issue was prepared through 4 June and 5 June, and released on 6 June 1903. The newspaper was published in Gujarati, Hindi, Tamil and English. Mansukhlal Nazar, the secretary of the Natal Congress served as its editor and a key organiser. In 1904, Gandhi relocated the publishing office to his settlement in Phoenix, located close to Durban.
  • Gandhi’s experience with the publication and the political struggle in South Africa proved a major experience for him that helped him in his work for the Indian independence movement. He commented “Satyagraha would have been impossible without Indian Opinion.”


  • Pabna uprising was a resistance movement by
  1. Tribals of jharkhand agains the british who made jute cultivation mandatory
  2. Sir george campbell, the then lieutenant governor of bengal, guaranteed british government support of peasants
  3. Peasants declared their parganas independent of zamindari control and tried setting up a local government
  • Choose right options

(a) Only 3
(b) 1 & 2
(c) 2 & 3
(d) None

  • Pabna Peasant Uprising (1873-76) was a resistance movement by the peasants (“Ryots”) against the lords of the lands in Bengal (“zamindars”) in the Yusufshahi pargana (now the Sirajganj District, Bangladesh) in Pabna.
  • Some lords forcefully collected rents and land taxes, often enhanced for the poor peasants and also prevented the tenants from acquiring Occupancy Right under Act X of 1859. The peasants were often evicted from the land due to non payment. The lords who gained parts of the Natore Raj frequently conducted violent act in order to gain more money. Due to the decline in the production of Jute in the 1870s, the peasants were struggling with famine. Some of the lords declared an enhancement of land taxes and that triggered the rebellion. Some peasants declared their parganas independent of zamindari control and tried setting up a local government with an “army” to fight the zamindari “lathials” or police. Deputies were placed in charge of the rebel army and were stationed at different parts of the district.
  • When the Pabna Raiyats’ League (created in May 1873) activities threatened public peace, the government intervened to restore peace. In a proclamation of 4 July 1873 Sir George campbell, the then Lieutenant Governor of Bengal, guaranteed British government support of peasants against excessive zamindar demands, and advised the zamindars to assert their claims by legal means only. In the face of police action and additional famine that broke out in 1873-74, the rebellion subsided
  • Act X of 1859 defined the rights and obligations of different categories of interests in land. The PERMANENT SETTLEMENT, though defined the rights of ZAMINDARS and other proprietors, remained silent about the rights of RAIYATS. The Regulation 1 of 1793 had vaguely recognised the customary rights of raiyats but clear definition was given about those rights in the Regulation. When disputes arose in individual cases, the zamindars claimed absolute rights over land, whereas raiyats also claimed customary rights. Courts were also not sure as to the rights of landed interests below the zamindar class, and consequently they passed conflicting decrees with far reaching consequences on the relations between zamindars and raiyats.
  • The most common cause of friction was the zamindari attempts to enhance rent. Many raiyats resisted such attempts, which often resulted in the deterioration of law and order. In the 1840s and ’50s many INDIGO PLANTERS bought benami raiyati rights for indigo cultivation and they put pressure on the government to define the rights of raiyats
  • Thus a bill was introduced in the Legislative Council which was passed into a law as Act X, 1859. While defining rights and liabilities of raiyats, the Act had classified them into three broad groups: raiyats paying rent at fixed rate; raiyats having rights of occupancy, but not holding at fixed rate of rent; and raiyats having acquired occupancy right and paying rent at a competitive rate.
  • The first category of raiyats was defacto peasant proprietors. Their rights were confirmed by custom and by law. Their rent could not be enhanced by the superior proprietors under any pretext. They were socially known as mirasi or permanent raiyats. The former khudkasta raiyats holding land for more than twelve years continuously were declared as occupancy raiyats of the second category. Their rent could be enhanced, but attempt for revision of rent could ignore the PARGANA rate. The third category or non-occupancy raiyats, who were once known as paikasta raiyats, were declared as raiyats having uncertain rights in land and the superior proprietors were free to enhance their rents according to market competition. The Act could not satisfy the raiyats, especially the third category of raiyats who constituted the large majority of rural society. However, this Act paved the way for a larger reform in agrarian relations effected by the BENGAL TENANCY ACT of 1885



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