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  • Ministry of Education released All India Survey of Higher Education (AISHE) report for the year 2019-20.


  • All India Survey on Higher Education (AISHE) is an annual web-based survey conducted since 2010-11 by the erstwhile Ministry of Human Resource Development portraying the status of higher education in the country.
  • The survey is being conducted under the central sector scheme Higher Education Statistics and Public Information System (HESPIS).
  • Survey is based on voluntary uploading of data by institutions of Higher Education and covers all higher education institutions in the country, which are categorised into 3 broad categories:
  • Universities
  • Colleges/Institutions
  • Stand-alone Institutions (not affiliated with Universities and are not empowered to provide degree, therefore run Diploma Level Programmes.)

Key findings of AISHE 2019-20

  • Distribution of higher education institutions
  • Enrolment in Higher Education: Gross Enrolment Ratio (GER) in higher education in India has risen marginally.
  • Gross Enrolment Ratio (GER) is the percentage of students belonging to the eligible age group (18 to 23 years) enrolled in Higher Education.
  • Gender Parity: The GER for women in 2019-20 is 27.3% as compared to 26.9% for men.
  • Consequently, Gender Parity Index (GPI) in Higher Education in 2019-20 is 1.01 against 1.00 in 2018-19 indicating an improvement in the relative access to higher education for females of eligible age group compared to males.
  • Pupil Teacher Ratio (PTR) (number of students for every teacher): in Higher Education is 26 and there are large variations among the States.
  • PTR is more than 50 in Bihar and Jharkhand and among top 6 States in terms of Enrolment, Karnataka and Tamil Nadu have the best PTR of 18 each.
  • A GPI of 1 indicates parity between the sexes; and a GPI greater than 1 indicates a disparity in favour of females.
  • Preferred Educational Streams: Nearly 85% of the students (2.85 crore) were enrolled in the six major disciplines such as Humanities, Science, Commerce, Engineering & Technology, Medical Science and IT & Computer.
  • Share of foreign students: The total number of foreign students enrolled in higher education is 47,427.
  • Highest share of foreign students come from the neighbouring countries of which Nepal is 26.88% of the total, followed by, Afghanistan (9.8%), Bangladesh (4.38%), Sudan (4.02%), Bhutan constitutes (3.82%) and Nigeria (3.4%).


  • Report titled ‘Child Labour: Global estimates 2020, trends and the road forward’ has been released by International Labour Organisation (ILO) and the United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF)
  • occasion of World Day against Child Labour (observed every year on 12th June).

Key findings of the report

  • 160 million children were in child labour globally, accounting for almost 1 in 10 of all children worldwide.
  • The prevalence of child labour in rural areas is close to three times higher than in urban areas.
  • Global progress against child labour has stagnated since 2016.
  • 72% of all child labour occurs within families, primarily on family farms or in family microenterprises.
  • Globally, 9 million additional children are at risk of being pushed into child labour by the end of 2022 because of COVID 19 pandemic.
  • The agriculture sector accounts for more child labourers, followed by services and industry.
  • Sub-Saharan Africa has the highest prevalence and largest number of children in child labour.


Why in News?

  • The Union Cabinet has approved the Model Tenancy Act for circulation to all States / Union Territories for adaptation by way of enacting fresh legislation or amending existing rental laws suitably.

About Model Tenancy Act 2021

  • Objectives: To regulate renting of residential and commercial premises and protect and balance the rights of landlords and tenants.

Need of the Act

  • Addressing Housing Shortage: In 2012 urban housing shortage was estimated to be at 1.9 crore units which increased further.
  • 2015 draft National Urban Rental Housing Policy noted that significant housing shortage faced by urban areas cannot be addressed by home ownership.
  • Rapid Urbanisation
  • Migration to Cities
  • Rising Cost of home ownership
  • Enabling Formalisation

Features of the Act

  • Tenancy agreement
  • Security deposit
  • Tenancy period
  • Eviction
  • Sub-letting


  • third edition of the report titled ‘Sustainable Development Goals (SDG) India Index and Dashboard 2020–21: Partnerships in the Decade of Action’ was released by NITI Aayog.
  • India’s overall score across SDGs improved marginally from 60 in 2019 to 66 in 2021 on accounts of improvement in performance in providing facilities including clean water and sanitation (Goal 6),
  • affordable and clean energy (Goal 7) among others.
  • However, there has been a major decline in the areas of industry, innovation and infrastructure as well as decent work and economic growth.
  • Kerala retains top rank followed by Himachal Pradesh and Tamil Nadu while Bihar is at bottom followed by Jharkhand and Assam.
  • Chandigarh maintained its top spot among the UTs followed by Delhi.
  • Mizoram, Haryana, and Uttarakhand are the top gainers in 2020–21 in terms of improvement in score from 2019.
  • In 2019, 10 states and UTs belonged to the category of Front-Runners while in 2021, 12 more states and Uts made it to the category.

What is SDG India Index?

  • First launched by NITI Aayog in 2018. The index has become the primary tool for monitoring progress of India’s states and its Union territories (Uts) towards the SDGs for 2030.
  • The Index for SDGs evaluates progress of states and Union Territories (UTs) on various parameters including health, education, gender, economic growth, institutions, climate change and environment.




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