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Most Important CA for UPSC Prelims 2021 April-July Set-6 – Free PDF Download

 

Consumer Protection (E-Commerce) Rules, 2020

  • Department of Consumer Affairs released a draft of proposed amendments to the Consumer Protection (Ecommerce) Rules, 2020.
  • Earlier, Government had notified the Consumer Protection (E-Commerce) Rules, 2020 with effect from 23 July 2020.
  • These Rules were framed under the Consumer Protection Act, 2019 and are intended to complement the said Act by regulating all e-Commerce activities and transactions.

Definition of e-commerce entity

  • To be expanded to include not just the entity operating the e-commerce platform but also “any entity engaged by such person for the purpose of fulfilment of orders placed by a user on its platform and any ‘related party’ as defined under Section 2(76) of the Companies Act, 2013″.
  • It does not include a seller offering his goods or services for sale on a marketplace e-commerce entity

Implications

  • Companies may ensure that entities such as those rendering last mile delivery services comply with the relevant rules and regulations e-commerce entities themselves are mandated to follow.

Registration of ecommerce entity

  • Every e-commerce entity which intends to operate in India shall register itself with the Department for Promotion of Industry and Internal Trade (DPIIT).
  • Ensures transparency of e-commerce entities and their system of working, as well as restricts them to display or promote any misleading advertisement to the users.

Duties of ecommerce entity

  • Require the e-commerce entities to mention the names and details of the importers, identify country of origin, provide a filter mechanism
  • ensuring parity between imported and domestic goods
  • help consumers make an informed decision when buying imported products.
  • Instructive to consumers when making a decision based on country of origin of the products and exercising an informed choice.

Grievance Redressal

  • Chief Compliance Officer who shall be responsible for ensuring compliance
  • Nodal contact person for 24×7 coordination
  • Officers to ensure compliance
  • To institute sound consumer grievance redressal mechanisms and inform the consumers of the same.
  • To ensure compliance of the rules.

Check on Mis-selling

  • “mis-selling” means an e-commerce entity selling goods or services by deliberate misrepresentation of information by such entity about such goods or services as suitable for the user who is purchasing it.
  • prevent misrepresentation of information of goods and services by ecommerce

Regulation of Cross-selling

  • Define ‘cross-selling’ as sale of related, adjacent, and complementary products/services with an intent to maximize the revenue of the ecommerce entity.
  • Clause intends to ensure transparency, thereby, preventing any practices that may be construed as misleading and manipulative.
  • This is to ensure a fair opportunity to domestic products.

Regulation of Flash sale

  • Defined as a sale organized by an e-commerce entity at significantly reduced prices, high discounts or any other such promotions or
  • attractive offers for a predetermined period of time on selective goods and services or otherwise with an intent to draw large number of consumers.
  • To prevent instant, unannounced sales that maybe manipulated to give advantage or preferential treatment to particular sellers.
  • To prevent cheating & unfair trade practices on e-commerce platforms and bring transparency for benefit of consumers.

Complete prohibition on related parties selling on platform

  • Prohibit related parties and associated enterprises of the e-commerce entity from enlisting as sellers on the platform.
  • Prohibit use of information collected on the platform for giving an unfair advantage to the related parties and associated enterprises.
  • completely separating the ecommerce entity (as a pure marketplace) from the sellers and eliminate the very concept of ‘related sellers.

GROSS ENVIRONMENT PRODUCT

  • On World Environment Day (June 5),
  • Four critical natural resources- Air, Water, Forest and Soil- will be assigned monetary values.

What is GEP?

  • total value of final ecosystem services supplied to human well-being in a region annually and can be measured in terms of biophysical value and monetary value.
  • It indicates the overall health of the environment as GEP measures prime indicators such as forest cover, soil erosion, air quality and dissolved oxygen in river water.

ETHANOL BLENDING IN INDIA

  • Advanced the target of 20% ethanol blending in petrol (also called as E20), by five years to 2025, from 2030.
  • The Government has also released an expert committee report on the ‘Roadmap for Ethanol Blending in India by 2025’.
  • Advanced the target of 20% ethanol blending in petrol (also called as E20), by five years to 2025, from 2030.
  • The Government has also released an expert committee report on the ‘Roadmap for Ethanol Blending in India by 2025’.
  • It proposes a gradual rollout of ethanol-blended fuel to achieve E10 fuel supply by April 2022 and phased rollout of E20 from April 2023 to April 2025.
  • National Biofuel Policy 2018 had envisaged an indicative target of 20% blending of ethanol in petrol and 5% blending of biodiesel in diesel by 2030.
  • In 2020, India had set a target of 10% ethanol-blending in petrol by 2022, 20% ethanol-blending in petrol by 2030 and 10% ethanol-blending in diesel by 2030.
  • It also recommends introducing vehicles that are compatible by rolling out of E20 material-compliant and E10 engine-tuned vehicles from April 2023 and production of E20-tuned engine vehicles from April 2025.
  • These efforts will facilitate setting up of additional ethanol distillation capacities and will provide timelines for making blended fuel available across the country.
  • It will also help increase consumption of ethanol in the ethanol producing states and the adjoining regions before the year 2025.

GLACIAL LAKE ATLAS OF GANGA RIVER BASIN

  • Recently, Ministry of Jal Shakti (MoJS) released an atlas of glacial lakes that are part of the Ganga River basin.
  • Atlas is brought out under National Hydrology Project (NHP).
  • glacial lakes with water spread area ≥ 0.25 ha have been mapped using Resourcesat-2 satellite data.
  • Extends over Central Himalayas in India, Nepal, Tibet (China), and Bangladesh.
  • It contains 9 of the 14 highest peaks in the world over 8,000 m in height, including Mt. Everest.
  • Other peaks over 8,000 m in the basin are Kanchenjunga, Lhotse, Makalu, Cho Oyu, Dhaulagiri, Manaslu, Annapurna, and Shishapangma.
  • In this atlas, Ganga River basin has been divided into 11 sub-basins

ORGANIC FARMING

  • About 14,491 hectare area in Andaman and Nicobar has been certified as organic under the
  • Large Area Certification (LAC) Scheme of the PGS-India (Participatory Guarantee System) certification programme (the first large contiguous territory to be certified).
  • Paramparagat Krishi Vikas Yojana (PKVY).
  • Under LAC, each village in the area is considered as one cluster or group and simple documentations are maintained village-wise.
  • Certification is renewed on annual basis through annual verification by a process of peer appraisals as per the process of PGS-India.
  • “Organic agriculture is a unique production management system which promotes and enhances agro-ecosystem health, including biodiversity, biological cycles and soil biological activity, and this is accomplished by using on-farm agronomic, biological and mechanical methods in exclusion of all synthetic off-farm inputs”. (FAO)

DROUGHTS IN INDIA

  • Global Assessment Report on Disaster Risk Reduction (GAR) was released by UN Office for Disaster Risk Reduction (UNDRR).
  • GAR Special Report on Drought 2021 explores the systemic nature of drought and its impacts on achievement of Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction, SDGs and human and ecosystems health and wellbeing.
  • Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction 2015-2030
  • aims to achieve the substantial reduction of disaster risk and losses in lives, livelihoods and health and in the economic, physical, social, cultural and environmental assets of persons, businesses, communities and countries.

What is drought?

  • Drought is characterized by a lack of precipitation—such as rain, snow, or sleet—for a protracted period of time, resulting in a water shortage.
  • While droughts occur naturally, human activity, such as water use and management, can exacerbate dry conditions.

Droughts in India

  • Over 68% of India is vulnerable to drought.
  • The ‘chronically drought-prone areas’ – around 33% – receive less than 750 mm of rainfall, while 35%, classified as ‘drought prone’ receive rainfall of 750-1,125 mm.
  • The major drought years in India were 1877, 1899, 1918, 1972, 1987 and 2002.
  • On the basis of severity of droughts, India can be divided into the 3 regions:
  • Extreme Drought Affected Areas
  • Rajasthan, west of the Aravali hills, Marusthali and Kachchh regions of Gujarat
  • Severe Drought Affected Areas
  • Parts of eastern Rajasthan, most parts of Madhya Pradesh, eastern parts of Maharashtra, interior parts of Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka Plateau, northern parts of interior Tamil Nadu and southern parts of Jharkhand and interior Odisha.

Moderate Drought Affected Areas

Northern parts of Rajasthan,

  • Haryana,
  • Southern districts of Uttar Pradesh, the remaining parts of Gujarat,
  • Maharashtra except Konkan, Jharkhand and Coimbatore plateau of Tamil Nadu and interior Karnataka.

 

 

 

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