- National Crime Records Bureau data for 2016
- Two important aspects, violent crime and crime against women
- State governments to make a serious study of the underlying causes.
- Not all States are equally affected; UP and Bihar record maximum number of murders
- Crimes against women, which includes rape, abduction(अपहरण), assault(हमला) and cruelty by
husband and relatives, is up by 2.9% over that of 2015.
- Delhi and Mumbai appearing the least safe:
- Delhi recorded a rate of crime that is more than twice the national average.
- Viewed in perspective, the murder rate today has declined to the level prevailing in
the 1950s, which was 2.7 per 1,00,000 people, after touching a peak of 4.62 in 1992
- Q-One question that needs to be analysed is, how much does social development
influence a reduction in crime?
- Since the Delhi gang rape case of 2012-
1)-Police forces have been directed to record the crime with greater sensitivity, and
2)-Some measures initiated to make public places safer for women
- A focussed programme to universalise education and skills training would potentially
keep juveniles from coming into conflict with the law.
- Lat year‟s data indicate that there is a rise in the number of cases involving juveniles
- Need urgent reform, such as
1)-Modernising the police,
2)-Recruiting right candidates and
3)-Teaching them to uphold human rights
- Supreme Court on police reforms issued in 2006 have not been implemented(Committee)
- Increase in crimes against women must prompt better policing and all-round reform
Barter system to Bitcoin
A misleading hunger index
- Global Hunger Index (GHI) is a multidimensional statistical tool used to describe the state of
countries„ hunger situation.
- The GHI measures progress and failures in the global fight against hunger
- Per capita food production in India has increased by 26% (2004-05 to 2013-14),
- Doubled in the last 50 years.
- Growth rate in food production is expected to reduce hunger significantly over time,
- GHI prepared by the International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI), shows India‟s
hunger level in very poor light.
- 2017 GHI score has India ranked 100 out of the 119 countries listed.
- India being among
1)- Worst performers and
2)-Underachievers in addressing food and nutrition security
- India still faces a problem of
1)-Undernourishment(आधेपेि खाना) and
2)-Poor child health.
- GHI for 2017 is calculated as a weighted average of four standardised indicators, i.e.
1)-The percentage of population that is undernourished(आधेपेि खाना);
2)-Percentage of children under •five years who suffer from wasting- Low weight for height
3)-Percentage of children under •five who suffer from stunting(prevent from growing)- Low
height for age
4)-Child mortality(under-5 mortality or death of children under the age of five)
- Undernourishment and child mortality each make up a third of the GHI score,
- While child stunting and child wasting make up a sixth of the score, and together make up
a third of the score.
- 3/4 indicators, refer only to children below 5 who constitute only 11.5% of India‟s population.
- “Hunger Index” is highly biased towards undernutrition of children rather than representing
the status of hunger in the overall population.
- “Global Hunger and Child Health Index” than as a “Global Hunger Index”.
- Evidence shows that weight and height of children are not solely determined by food intake
but are an outcome of a complex interaction of factors related to genetics, the environment
, sanitation and utilisation of food intake.
- If child health indicators are not included in the GHI, India will move to the 77th spot.
- India‟s ranking in terms of child mortality, child stunting and child wasting is 80, 106 and
- Calculating hunger
- The incidence of hunger is taken as proportion of the population whose food intake provides
less than its minimum energy requirements.
- Food and Agriculture Organisation of the United Nations (FAO) has an average norm
of 1,800 kcal, while the Indian Council of Medical Research-National Institute of Nutrition
(ICMR-NIN) specfied average norm of 2,400 kcal for rural areas 2,100 kcal for urban areas
and in varies across
- 1)-Age, 2)-Gender and 3)-Activity-level.
- To avoid confusion about the status of hunger and undernourishment, India should regularly prepare and publish official estimates of hunger, like that of poverty.
- It will also help in tackling hunger.
Disability rights over time
- A quick recap of how legislation for disabled persons has evolved
- In 1992, the United Nations announced that December 3 would be observed every year as International Day of Persons with Disabilities
- While disabled persons continue to struggle to secure employment and navigate their way
around with poor infrastruture.
- Disability rights movement gained momentum in the 1970s – Human Rights Issue.
- 1983-1992 was marked as the United Nations Decade of Disabled Persons.
- The UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (UNCRPD), 2006 was
a big step towards viewing persons as “subjects with rights” and not “objects of charity”.
- India is a signatory to the UNCRPD and ratified it in 2007.
- 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development pledges to “leave no one behind”.
- It states that persons with disabilities must be both “beneficiaries and agents of change”.
- However, attitudinal, institutional, and infrastructural barriers remain, World Bank stating that 15% of the world’s population experience some form of disability and that they “.
- 2011, the World Health Organisation came up with a world report on disability
for the •first time
- In India, according to the 2011 Census, 2.21% of the population has one or multiple types of disabilities, making the country home to one of the largest disabled populations in the world.
- Legislation moved forward last year in India when the Rights of Persons with Disabilities Act
was passed, replacing the Persons with Disabilities Act, 1995.
- The 2016 Act recognises 21 kinds of disabilities compared to the previous seven, including
dwarfism(बौनापन), speech and language disability, and three blood disorders.
- New Act also increased the quota for disability reservation in higher educational institutions
from 3% to 5% and in government jobs from 3% to 4%
- Legislation alone is not enough; implementation remains abysmal
- Data from the National Centre for Promotion of Employment for Disabled People
show that 84% of seats for persons with disabilities lie vacant in top universities.
- While we have a long way to go in implementing these laws, we must also keep in mind that
- A one-size-•fits-all approach is unhelpful for disabled persons.
- Levels and types of disabilities differ and so do needs.
Prelims Focus Facts-News Analysis
- Page-1- First phase of Chabahar port opened
- India said the construction of the Chabahar port in Iran will contribute to regional trade and provide Afghanistan with “alternate access” to global markets, after inauguration
- first phase by Iranian President Hassan Rouhani on Sunday.India and Afghanistan to bypass obstacles posed by Pakistan for trade on the direct route.