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Foundational Learning Study (FLS)


Foundational Learning: About the Study

  • The Foundational Learning Study was jointly carried out by the Union Ministry of Education and the National Council of Educational Research and Training (NCERT).
  • The Foundational Learning Study assessed maths skills and the language proficiency in 20 languages including English.
  • Classification: The students were categorised into four groups:
  • Those who lacked the most basic knowledge and skills
  • Those who had limited knowledge and skills
  • Those who had developed sufficient knowledge and skills
  • Those who had developed superior knowledge and skills
  • Students able to partially complete their grade-level tasks were put in the “limited skills” group.
  • Students who failed to complete even the simple grade-level tasks were categorised as “lacking the most basic skills”.


Foundational Learning Study
Foundational Learning Study

Foundational Learning: Performance

  • Mathematics:
  • National level: Around 11 per cent students did not have the basic grade-level skills; 37 per cent of them had limited skills; 42 per cent had sufficient skills; and 10 per cent had superior skills.
  • States: Tamil Nadu (29 per cent) had the maximum number of students who could not complete the most basic grade-level tasks.
  • Jammu and Kashmir (28 per cent), Assam, Chhattisgarh and Gujarat (18 per cent) followed Tamil Nadu.
  • Arunachal Pradesh, Chandigarh, Chhattisgarh, Goa, Gujarat, Haryana, Madhya Pradesh, Nagaland, and Tamil Nadu were states/UTs where students in the “limited skills” category were above 40%.
  • Language:
  • In Hindi, 21 per cent of students fell under the worst performing bracket, while 32 per cent had limited proficiency.
  • The proportion of students having limited skills in languages was: 39 per cent in Marathi, 43 per cent in Bengali, 40 per cent in Gujarati, 39 per cent in Malayalam, 35 per cent in Tamil, and 40 per cent in Urdu.
  • English skills: Around 15 per cent lacked “basic skills” in English, while 30 per cent were found to have “limited skills”.


Foundational Learning: Significance

  • Foundational Learning Study for future: The ability to read and write and perform basic operations with numbers sets the basic foundation that is necessary for all future schooling.
  • Building human capital: Development and Foundational Learning in early years is one of the most important indicators for the development of a productive and efficient human capital.
  • NIPUN Bharat: The study will set the base for NIPUN Bharat (National Initiative for Proficiency in Reading with Understanding and Numeracy) scheme to improve foundational learning.
  • Sustainable Development Goals: The data from study will provide report to Sustainable Development Goals at the global level.


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