DRAINAGE SYSTEM OF INDIA
- The flow of water through well-defined channels is known as drainage and the network of such channels is called a “drainage system”.
- The drainage system of an area is the outcome of the geological time period, nature and structure of rocks, slope, topography, amount of water flowing and the periodicity of flow.
- The area drained by a single river system (river and its tributaries) is called its drainage basin.
- An elevated area (mountain or an upland) that separates two drainage basins is called a “water divide”.
- The world’s largest drainage basin is of the Amazon river and in India, the river Ganga has the largest river basin.
- The Himalayan Rivers: Perennial rivers: Indus, the Ganga, the Brahmaputra and their tributaries.
- The Peninsular Rivers: Non-Perennial rivers: Mahanadi, the Godavari, the Krishna, the Cauvery, the Narmada and the Tapi and their tributaries.
MAJOR RIVER BASIN IN INDIA
- Indus River System
- Brahmaputra River System
- Ganga River System
- Godavari River System
- Krishna River System
- Cauvery River System
- Mahanadi River System
- Narmada River System
- Tapti River System
INDUS RIVER SYATEM
- It originates from a glacier near Bokhar Chu (31°15′ N latitude and 81°41′ E longitude) in the Tibetan region at an altitude of 4,164 m in the Kailash mountain range.
- Area – It covers a total area of 11,65,000 sq.km. In India, it covers an area of 3,21,289 sq.km.
- Length – Its total length is 2,880 km and in India, its length is 1,114 km.
- Flows through the regions of Ladakh, Baltistan and Gilgit and runs between the Ladakh Range and the Zaskar Range.
- It crosses the Himalayas through a 5181 m deep gorge near Attock, lying north of the Nanga Parbat and later takes a bend to the south west direction before entering Pakistan.
- It has a large number of tributaries in both India and Pakistan and has a total length of about 2897 km from the source to the point near Karachi where it falls into the Arabian Sea.
- Important DAM--Nimoo bagzo dam on Indus river located in the union territory of Ladakh.
- Left bank tributaries of the Indus river
- Nubra river (main tributary of Shyok river), Shyok river, Gilgit river, Hunza river, Kabul river, Khurram river, Gomal river, Viboa river, Tochi river and Sangar river.
Main Right Tributaries of Indus River
- Origin – “Rakas tal” near Mansarovar in Tibet.
- This is an antecedent river called Langechen Khambab in Tibet.
- Course – it runs almost parallel to the Indus river for about 400 km before entering India.
- It passes through the Shipki La on the Himalayan ranges and enters the Punjab plains. It meets the Beas river in Hari-ke-Patan in Amritsar, Punjab. After the confluence, the combined river enters Pakistan.
- Important DAM-– It feeds the canal system of the Bhakra Nangal project.
- Various hydroelectric power and irrigation projects, such as the Kol Dam, Bhakra Nangal Dam, Baspa Hydroelectric Power Project, and Nathpa Jhakri Project, are located along the river.
- SUTLEJ-YAMUNA LINK
- A proposal has been made to connect the Sutlej and Yamuna rivers with a 214-kilometer long heavy freight and irrigation canal known as the Sutlej-Yamuna Link (SYL).
- The project aims to link the Ganges River, which flows along the east coast of India, with points west via Pakistan.
ØImportant Cities-– The four important cities in the satluj river basin is :
- Origin – Beas Kund near Rohtang Pass (Himachal Pradesh).
- Course – It flows through the Kullu valley (Himachal Pradesh) and forms gorges at Kati and Largi in the Dhauladhar range. It enters the Punjab plains where it meets the Satluj near Harike (Punjab).
- The Beas river flows entirely within India.
- Important DAM-– The Pong Dam, also known as the Beas Dam, is an earth-fill embankment dam on the Beas River in the state of Himachal Pradesh, India, just upstream of Talwara.
- Important Cities-– The nearest city is Kapurthala (24 km or 15 mi) to the southwest. The holy and historical city of the Amritsar (41 km or 25 mi) lies to its northwest, and Jalandhar (38 km) is situated to its southeast.
- Origin – West of Rohtang Pass, Kullu Hills (Himachal Pradesh).
- Course – It flows through the Chamba valley (Himachal Pradesh) of the state. It drains the area lying between the south-eastern part of Pir Panjal and the Dhauladhar ranges.
- It enters the plains of Punjab and runs along the Indo-Pakistan border for some distance.
- It then enters Pakistan and joins the Chenab river near Sarai Sidhu.
- Important Cities– Lahore (Pakistan)
- Origin – Baralacha Pass (Himachal Pradesh).
- It is formed by two streams – the Chandra and the Bhaga which meet at Tandi near Keylong in Himachal Pradesh. It is also known as Chandrabhaga.
- It is the largest tributary of the Indus and flows for about 1180 km before entering into Pakistan.
- Important DAM-– Salal Dam in on Chenab river located in the Reasi district of Jammu and Kashmir.
- Baglihar Dam –nearest city Ramban in Ramban district
- Dulhasti Dam –nearest city Kishtwar in Kishtwar district
- Origin – Spring at Verinag, in the south-eastern part of Kashmir valley, at the foothills of Pir Panjal.
- Course – It flows through Srinagar and enters Wular Lake before entering Pakistan through a deep narrow gorge.
- At Jhang (Pakistan) it joins Chenab.
- Important DAMs-– Uri Dam on Jhelum river located in the baramula district of Jammu and Kashmir.
- Important lakes– They are Wullar lake, Dal lake, Anchar lake, Mansbal lake, Harvan lake, Hokasar lake, Gangabal lake, Vishno-pad lake, Neelang lake and Sheshang lake.
- The Kishanganga Hydroelectric Project is a run-of-the-river hydroelectric scheme in Jammu and Kashmir, India. Its dam diverts water from the Kishanganga River to a power plant in the Jhelum River basin.
- Pakistan objected because the waters of the Jhelum river and its tributaries are allocated to Pakistan under the Indus Waters Treaty of 1960.
- Important Cities– Jhelum River at Srinagar, Jammu and Kashmir, India
The Ganga River System
- The Ganga (Ganges) rises from the Gangotri Glacier near Gaumukh of Uttarakhand (Uttarkashi district), in the Garhwal Himalayas at an elevation of some 4100 metres above the sea level under the name of Bhagirathi.
- This main stream of the river flows through the Himalayas till another two streams – the Mandakini and the Alaknanda – join it at Dev Prayag, the point of confluence. The combined stream is then known as the Ganga.
- The Ganga is the national river and also the largest river system in India. The Ganga river system consists of both perennial as well as non-perennial rivers which originate in the Himalayas (north) and the Peninsula (south) respectively.
- The river after traversing a distance of 2525 kms from its source meets the Bay of Bengal at Ganga Sagar in West Bengal.
- It is a transboundary river that flows through India and Bangladesh.
- Tehri Dаm, the 8th tаllest dаm in the wоrld, is lосаted оn the Bhаgirаthi River, Uttаrаkhаnd
The Ganga river basin covers about 8.6 lakh sq.km in India. It runs through Uttarakhand (110 km), Uttar Pradesh (1450 km), Bihar (445 km) and West Bengal (520 km).
Alaknanda originates in the Santopanth glacier above Badrinath. The five confluences known as the Panch Prayag are along the Alaknanda.
Vishnuprayag, the place of the confluence of the Dhauliganga river and the Alaknanda river.
- Nandaprayag, the place of the confluence of the Nandakini river and the Alaknanda river.
- Karnaprayag, the place of the confluence of the Pindar river with the Alaknanda river.
- Rudraprayag, the place of confluence of the Mandakini river/Kali Ganga with the Alaknanda river.
- Devprayag, the place of confluence of the Bhagirathi river with the Alaknanda river.
- At Haridwar, the Ganga emerges from the mountains onto the plains.
- The Ganga initially flows in the southern direction, then in the south-east direction up to Mirzapur and then in the east direction in the Bihar plains.
- The Ganga flows eastwards to Farakka in West Bengal.
- At Farakka, its distributary, Bhagirathi-Hooghly flows southwards through deltaic plains to the Bay of Bengal near Sagar Island.
- After entering Bangladesh, the main branch of the Ganga is known as the Padma which meets Jamuna river (largest distributary of the Brahmaputra river). Padma river meets Meghna (second largest distributary of Brahmaputra) and hereafter, it is known as Meghna river and enters into the Bay of Bengal.
- The delta formed with waters from the Ganga and the Brahmaputra rivers is known as the Sundarban Delta.
- It is the world’s largest and fastest-growing delta. It is also the home of the Royal Bengal tiger.
RIGHT BANK TRIBUTARIES OF GANGA
- YAMUNA RIVER
- The River Yamuna originates from the Yamunotri glacier, 6387m above mean sea level (msl), at the Banderpoonch peak in the Uttarkashi district of Uttarakhand.
- The catchment of the river extends to states of Uttar Pradesh, Himachal Pradesh, Haryana, Rajasthan and Madhya Pradesh and the entire union territory of Delhi.
- The river flows 1367 km from here to its confluence with the River Ganga at Allahabad.
- The main tributaries joining the river include the Hindon, Chambal, Sind, Betwa and Ken.
- The annual flow of the river is about 10,000 cumecs. The annual usage is 4400 cumecs, irrigation accounting for 96% of this.
MAJOR TRIBUTARIES OF YAMUNA
- Tons River
- Tons River is the biggest and most extensive tributary of the Yamuna.
- It springs in the 6,315 m (20,720 ft) tall Bandarpoonch Mountain.
- The river has a huge catchment area in Himachal Pradesh.
- The Tons River joins Yamuna beneath Kalsi close to Dehradun, Uttarakhand.
- Hindon River
- The Hindon River is a wholly rain-fed river. The river has its source in the Saharanpur District from Upper Shivalik in Lower Himalayan Range.
- The Hindon River has a drainage basin of 7,083 KM2 and passes a length of 400 km through Meerut District, Muzaffarnagar District, Ghaziabad, Baghpat District, Noida, Greater Noida, prior to meeting Yamuna just exterior to Delhi.
- Ken River
- The Ken River runs through the Bundelkhand area of Madhya Pradesh and Uttar Pradesh.
- The river has its source close to the Ahirgawan village in Jabalpur district and runs a length of 427 km, prior to fusing with the Yamuna at Chilla village in the vicinity of Fatehpur in Uttar Pradesh.
- Chambal River
- The Chambal River is also named as Charmanvati in prehistoric periods. The river runs across Madhya Pradesh and Rajasthan.
- The river has its origin in the Vindhya Range, close to Mhow and assist in hydroelectric power creation at Rana Pratap Sagar dam, Gandhi Sagar dam, and Jawahar Sagar dam, prior to fusing with the Yamuna to the south east of Sohan Goan in Etawah district of Uttar Pradesh.
- Soon after that, the Chambal River is pursued by another tributary, the Sindh River.
- Tamas River
- Its source is Tamakund in the Kaimur Range (Madhya Pradesh).
- It joins Ganga at Sirsa (Uttar Pradesh).
- Son/Sone River
- It is the second-largest southern tributary of the Ganga (first being the Yamuna river).
- It originates near Amarkantak Hill, (Madhya Pradesh) near the Narmada river and joins the Ganga near Patna in Bihar.
- Rihand Project Uttar Pradesh Rihand River and Son River
- Punpun River
- It originates from the Chotanagpur Plateau region of Palamu district in Jharkhand.
- It joins the Ganga at Fatwah (Patna).
LEFT BANK TRIBUTARIES OF GANGA
- Ramganga river
- It originates in the Garhwal hills near Gairsain (Uttarakhand).
- It changes its course to the south-west direction after crossing the Shiwaliks and enters into the plains of Uttar Pradesh near Najibabad. It joins the Ganga near Kannauj (Uttar Pradesh).
- It flows through the Jim Corbett National Park.
- Gomti river
- The Gomti is a monsoon and groundwater-fed river which originates from Gomat Taal (Fulhaar Jheel) near Pilibhit district (Uttar Pradesh).
- Kaithi, Ghazipur (Uttar Pradesh) is the place where the river Gomti and the Ganga meet.
- The Markandey Mahadev temple is at the confluence of the Gomti and the Ganga.
- Ghaghara River
- It is a perennial transboundary river.
- The Ghaghara originates in the glaciers of Mapchachungo, near Mansarovar Lake, Tibet. After collecting the waters from its tributaries – Tila, Seti and Beri it comes out of the mountain, cutting a deep gorge at Shishapani.
- The river Sharda joins it at Brahmaghat in India. The Sharda or Saryu river originates in the Milam glacier in the Nepal Himalayas. The Ghaghara joins the Ganga at Chhapra (Bihar).
- It is the second-longest tributary by length after the Yamuna.
- The Ghaghara or Karnali in Nepal is the longest river in Nepal.
- Gandhak River
- It originates at the Nhubine Himal Glacier in the Mustang region of the Nepal border.It is one of the major rivers of Nepal and is known as Kali Gandaki.
- In Nepal, the river is also known as Narayani and Sapt-Gandhaki.
- The Gandhaki river merges with the Ganga at Patna (Bihar).
- Kosi River
- The Kosi is an antecedent river.
- It is often referred to as the “Sorrow of Bihar”.
- Arun is its main stream which originates from the northern slopes of Mt. Everest in Tibet (China).
- After crossing the Central Himalayas in Nepal, it is joined by Son Kosi from the west and Tamur Kosi from the east. It forms Sapt Kosi after uniting with the River Arun.
- The Kosi river branches into distributaries before joining the river Ganga near Kursela in Katihar district (Bihar).
- Mahananda River
- The river rises in the Darjeeling hills of West Bengal. It flows southwards through the fertile agricultural area of Bihar and enters into West Bengal.
- It then flows in the southeast direction into Bangladesh. The river joins the Ganga at Godagari Ghat (Bangladesh).
- It is the easternmost tributary of the Ganga river.
- Important DAMS on Ganga River and its Tributaries
- Tehri Project: It has been constructed at Tehri at the confluence of the rivers Bhilangana and Bhagirathi.
- Ramganga Project: It is constructed on the river Ramganga, tributary of Ganga.
- Tanakpur Project: It has been executed at Tanakpur (Uttarakhand) on the river Kali that flows on the Indo-Nepal border.
- Gandak Project: It is joint project of Bihar, Uttar Pradesh and Nepal. Hydro-electricity is produced at Suratpura (Nepal) on the river Gandak. The dam has been built at Bhaisalotan (Valmikinagar) in Bihar.
- Kosi Project: It is a joint project of Bihar and Nepal. The main objectives of this project are flood control, hydro-electricity production and irrigation. Kataiya in Nepal produced Hydro-electricity. The main canal in Bihar has been drawn out from the Hanuman Nagar Barrage.
- Rihand Project: It has been executed at Pipri (Sonebhadra district, Uttar Pradesh) on the river Rihand, a tributary of the son.
- Bansagar Project: It is joint project of Madhya Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh and Bihar on the son. It has been built on the son in the district of Shahdol in Madhya Pradesh
- Matatila Project: It is joint project of Madhya Pradesh and Uttar Pradesh on the river Betwa. The dam has been built in Uttar Pradesh.
- Chambal Project: It is a joint undertaking by the Rajasthan and Madhya Pradesh governments. The Rana Pratap Dam at Bhata, 48 km from Kotah, was inaugurated on Feb 9, 1970. The project comprises construction of two other dams: Gandhi Sagar Dam in Madhya Pradesh and Jawahar Sagar (Kotah) Dam in Rajasthan.
- Damodar Valley: Principal object of this multipurpose scheme is to control the flowing of the Damodar which is notorious for its vagaries and destructiveness. It is designed on the lines of the Tennessee Valley Authority (T.V.A.) in U.S.A.
- Mayurakshi Project: It is joint project of undivided Bihar (Now Jharkhand) and West Bengal. A dam has been built on the river Mayurakshi at Masanjor in Dumka district of Jhakhand. It is also known as the ‘Canada Dam’.
THE BRAHMAPUTRA RIVER SYSTEM
- The Brahmaputra origin in the Chemayungdung glacier of the Kailash range near the Mansarovar Lake.
- It is slightly longer than the Indus, but most of its course lies outside India.
- It flows eastward, parallel to the Himalayas.
- The undercutting done by this river is of the order of 5500 metres.
- In India, it flows through Arunachal Pradesh and Assam, and is joined by several tributaries.
- It is known as Tsangpo or the Yarlung Tsangpo in the Tibet region and flows parallel to the Himalayan ranges before entering India through Arunachal Pradesh.
- The Tsangpo River (Brahmaputra) enters India at Bishing, from where it is known as the “Siang River“.
- Reaching Namcha Barwa (7757 m), it takes a U-turn around it and enters India in Arunachal Pradesh and known as dihang.
- After joining its tributaries, Lohit and the Dibang river, known as the Brahmaputra.
- After entering Bangladesh, the Brahmaputra river is known as the Jamuna river, and it is joined by the Ganga river, known as the Padma river in Bangladesh. And finally, the river Brahmaputra empties its water into the Bay of Bengal.
- The river basin consists of all the land drained by the river and its tributaries.
- The Brahmaputra river basin consists of various small rivers and is so large that it spreads over Tibet, Bhutan, Bangladesh, and India.
- The River Brahmaputra basin in India extends over different states, consisting of Assam, Arunachal Pradesh, West Bengal, Meghalaya, Nagaland, and Sikkim.
- Now, the river splits into two distributaries.
- The western branch, which contains the majority of the river’s flow, continues as Jamuna to merge with the Padma river (Ganga river).
- Majuli (Assam) is the largest river island in the world which lies in this river.
- Mājuli island is accessible by ferries from the city of Jorhat. The island is about 300–400 kilometres (186–249 mi) east from the state’s largest city —Guwahati. It was formed due to course changes by the river Brahmaputra and its tributaries, mainly the Lohit.
- Mājuli is the abode of the Assamese neo-Vaishnavite culture.
- Majuli is since 2004 in the UNESCO Tentative List for nomination as a World Heritage Site.
- The eastern branch (now much smaller) is called the lower or old Brahmaputra.
- It curves southeast to join the Meghna River near Dhaka.
- The Padma and Meghna converge near Chandpur and flow out as Meghna into the Bay of Bengal.
- Important DAMS–
- Subansiri Lower Dam ,Ranganadi Dam,Rangit Dam, Dibang Dam
- China completed the Zangmu Dam (510 MW capacity) built on the upper reaches of Brahmaputra in 2010.
- Three more dams at Dagu (640 MW), Jiacha (320 MW) and Jeixu are currently under construction.
- The work on Zam hydropower station, which will be the largest dam on Brahmaputra, too commenced in 2015.
- Chinese decision to build more and more dams on Yarlung/Brahmaputra has been an issue of major concern for India.
NARMADA RIVER SYSTEM
- The Narmada originates on the western flank of the Amarkantak plateau (Madhya Pradesh) at a height of about 1,057 m.
- It flows in a rift valley towards the west between the Vindhyan range in the north and the Satpura range in the south.
- On its way to the sea, the Narmada river creates many picturesque locations.
- ‘The Marble rocks’ near Jabalpur where the Narmada flows through a deep gorge and the ‘Dhuandhar Falls’, Jabalpur (Madhya Pradesh) where the river plunges over steep rocks are some of the notable ones.
- The Narmada river flows through Madhya Pradesh and Gujarat.
- The river drains into the Arabian sea near the Gulf of Khambhat, south of Bharuch city of Gujarat and forms a broad 27 km estuary (unlike east-flowing rivers which form deltas). It is the longest west-flowing river in India and the largest flowing river of the state of Madhya Pradesh.
- Important DAMS
- Sardar Sarovar Dam- Gujarat
- Indira Sagar Dam – Madhya Pradesh
- Omkareshwar Dam – Madhya Pradesh
- Maheshwar Dam – Madhya Pradesh
- Bargi Dam – Madhya Pradesh
- Maan Dam – Madhya Pradesh
- Jobat Dam – Madhya Pradesh
- Tawa Dam – Madhya Pradesh
- The Sardar Sarovar Project has been constructed on this river. Length of the river is ~1,312 km.
- Kanha National Park is located in the upper reaches of the Narmada river.
- Important religious places and Ghats along the course of the river, starting from its origin at Narmada Kund at Amarkantak hill;
1.Amarkantak (in Sanskrit: Neck of Shiva) or Teertharaj (the King of Pilgrimages),
- Omkareshwar(Khandwa District),
- Maheshwar, and Mahadeo temples,
- Siddheshwar Temple, Nemawar in the middle reach of the river
- Chausath Yogini Temple, Jabalpur (Sixty Four Yoginis) Bhedaghat,
- Chaubis Avatar Temple, Omkareshwar,
- Bhrigu Rishi temple in Bharuch.
TAPTI RIVER SYSTEM
- The Tapi is a river of central India. It is one of the major rivers of peninsular India with the length of around 724 km; it runs from east to west.
- It rises in the eastern Satpura Range of southern Madhya Pradesh state, and flows westward, draining Madhya Pradesh’s historic Nimar region, Maharashtra’s historic Khandesh and east Vidarbha regions in the northwest corner of the Deccan Plateau and South Gujarat before emptying into the Gulf of Cambay of the Arabian Sea, in the State of Gujarat.
- The Western Ghats or Sahyadri range starts south of the Tapti River near the border of Gujarat and Maharashtra.
- The Tapi River Basin lies mostly in northern and eastern districts Maharashtra state viz, Amravati, Akola, Buldhana, Washim, Jalgaon, Dhule, Nandurbar, Malegaon, Nashik districts but also covers Betul, Burhanpur districts of Madhya Pradesh and Surat district in Gujarat as well.
- The principal tributaries of Tapi River are Purna River, Girna River, Panzara River, Waghur River, Bori River and Aner River.
- Important DAMS–Dehali Dam, Dhaner Dam Hatnur DAM Nanduri Dam,Sulwade Barrage Dam Ukai Dam Wadishewadi Dam Wan Hydroelectric Project
- Mahi- The Mahi river originates in the Vindhyan Range (Madhya Pradesh). Turning north-west it enters Rajasthan (Vagad) and then turns southwest to flow through Gujarat. It drains into the Arabian Sea near the Gulf of Khambhat.
- Mahi Bajaj Sagar Dam and Kandana Dam have been built on this river.
- Sabarmati– It originates in the Aravalli Range of the Udaipur District of Rajasthan. It meets the Gulf of Khambhat of the Arabian Sea after travelling in a south-west direction across Rajasthan and Gujarat.
- Luni- The Luni is the largest river in the Thar Desert of north-west India.
- It originates in the Pushkar valley of the Aravalli Range, near Ajmer. At its origin, it is known as Sagarmati which meets Sarasvati (which originates from Pushkar Lake) and thereafter, it is called Luni.
- The Luni turns brackish below Balotra and loses itself south-westwards into the Rann of Kutch.
- The Luni is also known as the Lavanavari or Lavanavati, which means “Salt water” in Sanskrit.
- The Mahanadi originates near Sihawa in the Raipur district of Chhattisgarh.
- It runs through Odisha and discharges into the Bay of Bengal.
- Its length is 851 km and the drainage basin is shared by Maharashtra, Chhattisgarh, Jharkhand and Odisha.
- Initially, the river flows in a northerly direction and drains the Raipur district. It then flows in an easterly direction and is joined by the Jonk and Hasdeo rivers before entering Odisha.
- Near the city of Sambalpur, it is dammed by the largest earthen dam in the world, the Hirakud Dam.
- The Mahanadi enters the Bay of Bengal via several channels near Paradeep at False Point, Jagatsinghpur (Odisha).
- The Mahanadi was called “the sorrow of Orissa”, however, the construction of the Hirakud Dam has helped to keep the river well in control.
- The Godavari is the largest Peninsular river system and is also called the Dakshin Ganga (Ganga of the south).
- It rises at Trimbakeshwar, near Nasik and Mumbai (formerly Bombay) in Maharashtra
- The river originates in the Western Ghats of Central India near Nashik in Maharashtra. It flows eastwards and enters Telangana State (in Nizamabad district).
- The river then flows south-east, flowing through a gap in the Eastern Ghats ranges and then crosses Andhra Pradesh.
- The river after Rajahmundry splits into several branches forming a large delta along the coast of the Bay of Bengal. This delta along with the delta of the Krishna river is called the Rice Granary of South India.
- Its length is 1,465 km and the drainage system is shared by the states of Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Odisha and Andhra Pradesh.
KRISHNA RIVER SYSTEM
- The Krishna is one of the longest rivers of India (about 1300 km in length).
- It originates at Mahabaleswar in Maharashtra, passes through Sangli and meets the sea in the Bay of Bengal at Hamasaladeevi in Andhra Pradesh.
- The Krishna River flows through the states of Maharashtra, Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh.
- The traditional source of the river is a spout from the mouth of a statue of a cow in the ancient temple of Mahadev in Mahabaleshwar.
- Its most important tributary is the Tungabhadra River, which itself is formed by the Tunga and Bhadra rivers that originate in the Western Ghats.
- Kolleru Lake is one of the largest freshwater lakes in India located in state of Andhra Pradesh and forms the largest shallow freshwater lake in Asia.
- It is located between Krishna and Godavari deltas.
- Other tributaries include the Koyna, Bhima, Mallaprabha, Ghataprabha, Yerla, Warna, Dindi, Musi and Dudhganga rivers.
- Important DAMS– Dhom Dam, Hippargi barrage,Almatti Dam, Narayanpur Dam,Bhima Dam,Jurala Dam,Srisailam Dam,Nagarjuna Sagar Dam, Srisailam Dam, Nagarjuna Sagar tail pond, Pulichinthala Dam, Prakasam Barrage, Tungabhadra Dam, Rajolibanda barrage, Sunkesula barrage
- Important Cities—Amaravati ,vijaywada,srisalam,Hyderabad on musi river, hampi and Kurnool at Tungabhadra
- Temples are the Kanaka Durga Temple in Vijayawada, Ramling temple near Sangli, Mallikarjuna Jyotirlinga (Srisailam), Amareshwara Swamy Temple, Vedadri Narasimha Temple, Vadapalli temple in Nalgonda, Dattadeva temple, and Sangameshwara Shiva temples at Alampur & Gadwal in Telangana
- Krishna river basin is endowed with rich mineral deposits such as oil & gas, coal, iron, limestone, dolomite, gold, granite, laterite, uranium, diamonds, etc. The following are the few noted deposits:
- Krishna Godavari Basin–oil & gas, Yellandu–coal, Bayyaram Mines–iron ,Kudremukh–iron, Donimalai–iron Jaggayapeta mines–dolomite, Nalgonda–uranium deposits, Kollur Mine–diamonds, Hatti –Gold Mines,
- The following are few other wildlife sanctuaries located in the Krishna basin.
- Nagarjunsagar-Srisailam Tiger Reserve
- Rollapadu Wildlife Sanctuary
- Bhadra Wildlife Sanctuary
- Ghataprabha Bird Sanctuary
- Gudavi Bird Sanctuary
- Koyna Wildlife Sanctuary
- Radhanagari Wildlife Sanctuary
- Great Indian Bustard Sanctuary
- Chandoli National Park
- Kudremukh National Park
- Kasu Brahmananda Reddy National Park
- Mahavir Harina Vanasthali National Park
- Mrugavani National Park
- Pakhal Wildlife Sanctuary
- Ranibennur Blackbuck Sanctuary
CAUVERI RIVER SYSTEM
- The river originates in the Brahmagiri range of the Western Ghats, Kogadu district in Karnataka.
- The river flows through the states of Karnataka and Tamil Nadu.
- The length of the river is about 800 km and the river basin is shared by three states and a Union Territory – Tamil Nadu, Karnataka, Kerala and Puducherry.
- The river Kaveri makes the second biggest waterfall in India known as Shivasamudram Falls.
- The power generated from the falls is supplied to Mysore, Bengaluru and the Kolar Gold Field.
- The drainage basin of the river receives rainfall during the summer monsoon as well as during the retreating and winter monsoon and therefore, the river carries water throughout the year with comparatively less fluctuation than the other Peninsular rivers.
- Its important tributaries are the Kabini, Bhavani, Amravati and Hemavati.
- At Shivanasamudra the river drops 98 metres (320 ft), forming the famous Shivanasamudra Falls known separately as Gagana Chukki and Bhara Chukki.Asia’s first hydroelectric plant (built in 1902) was on the left falls and supplied power to the city of Bangalore.
- The Nilgiris, an offshore of Western ghats, extend Eastwards to the Eastern ghats and divide the basin into two natural and political regions i.e., Karnataka plateau in the North and the Tamil Nadu plateau in the South.
- Important DAMS– Amaravathi Dam, Banasura Sagar Dam, Kallanai Dam, Krishna Raja Sagara, Mettur Dam, Upper Anaicut.
- Disputed Mekedatu Project is on river Cauvery.
- Important DAMS–Erode, Tiruchirappalli, sringappattinam, kumbakonam
WEST FLOWING SMALL RIVERS
- Shetrunji – near Dalkahwa in Amreli district (Gujarat).
- Bhadra – Aniali village in Rajkot district (Gujarat).
- Dhadhar – near Ghantar village in PanchMahal district (Gujarat).
- Vaitarna – Trimbak Hills in Nasik District (Maharashtra).
- Kalinadi – Belgaum district and falls in Karwar Bay.
- Bedti – Hubli Dharwar (Karnataka).
- Sharavati – Shimoga district of Karnataka.
- Mandovi and Juari are the two important rivers of Goa.
- Bharathapuzha – near Anamalai hills. The river is also known as Ponnani.
- Periyar – Sivagiri Hills of Western Ghats. It is an important river of Kerala.
- Pamba – It flows in Kerala and falls in the Vembanad lake.
- Subansiri River — The Subansiri River is one of the major Rivers In Arunachal Pradesh.
- It is one of the tributaries of the Brahmaputra River.
- There are many tourist attractions in and around the riverbanks of this beautiful river. The River is known all over the world for its gold dust.
- Fishing is a very popular adventure sports activity on the river waters.
- Damodar River –The Damodar River is one of the most important Rivers in Eastern India . It lies on the Chota Nagpur Plateau in the state of Jharkhand in India.
- The river runs according to an easterly itinerary for a stretch of around 592 km, traversing Jharkhand and West Bengal to the estuary of the Hooghly River.
- the Damodar ran through West Bengal on a straight west to east itinerary and met the River Hooghly close to Kalna.
- The biggest tributary of the Damodar River is the Barakar.
- The Damodar Valley Project is India’s first multipurpose river valley project.
- It was founded in 1948 Panchet Dam on the Damodar river; Tailaiya Dam, Maithon Dam, and Bal Pahari Dam on the Barakar river (a tributary of Damodar); Konar Dam on the river Konar (a tributary of Damodar); Bakora Dam on the Bokaro river are all important dams under the project (a tributary of Damodar).
- The Durgapur barrage on the Damodar river in Durgapur was also built for irrigation water storage.
- Subarnarekha River
- One of the longest east-flowing interstate rivers is the Subarnarekha.
- It begins at an elevation of 600 meters near Nagri village in the Ranchi region of Jharkhand.
- The Chota Nagpur Plateau borders it on the north-west, the Brahmani basin on the south-west, the Burhabalang basin on the south, and the Bay of Bengal on the south-east.
- The Subarnarekha’s major tributaries are the Kharkai, Roro, Kanchi, Harmu Nadi, Damra, Karru, Chinguru, Karakari, Gurma, Garra, Singaduba, Kodia, Dulunga, and Khaijori.
- Sonari (Domuhani), a Jamshedpur area, is where the Kharkai joins the Subarnarekha.Getalsud reservoir is located across the Subernarekha, east of Ranchi, and around 50 kilometers from its source.
- Local tribal workers have been engaged in filtering sand and getting out gold from the river bedSubarnarekha in English translates to Streak of Gold. There’s a village called Piska in Ranchi, where gold was first mined near the origin of the river
- The Brahmani is formed by the confluence of the rivers South Koel and Sankh near the major industrial town of Rourkela.
- The Sankh has its origins near the Jharkhand-Chhattisgarh border, not far from the Netarhat Plateau.
- The South Koel too arises in Jharkhand, near Lohardaga, on the other side of a watershed that also gives rise to the Damodar River. Both of these sources are in the Chota Nagpur Plateau.
- At about 480 kilometres (300 mi) long, the Brahmani is the second longest river in Odisha after the Mahanadi.
- The basin consisting of Brahmani and Baitarni extends over states of Odisha, Jharkhand and Chhattisgarh
- The basin is bounded by the Chhotanagpur Plateau on the north, by the ridge separating it from Mahanadi basin on the west and the south and by the Bay of Bengal on the east.
- Bhitarkanika National Park:
- It has the second-largest mangrove forest in India and is a Ramsar site.
- It was declared as a Bhitarkanika National Park in the year of 1988.
- Bhitarkanika is located in the estuary of Brahmani, Baitarani, Dhamra, and Mahanadi river systems. It is located in Kendrapara district of Odisha.
- Protected Areas: The Bhitarkanika is represented by 3 Protected Areas which are:
- Bhitarkanika National Park, Bhitarkanika Wildlife Sanctuary.,Gahirmatha Marine Sanctuary.
- The Odisha coast has the world’s largest known rookery of olive ridley sea turtle.
- Apart from Gahirmatha rookery, two other masses are there where nesting beaches have been located which are at the mouth of rivers Rushikulya and Devi.
- Nagvali river
- Nagavali River originates from a hill near Lakhbahal village in Thuamul Rampur block of Kalahandi District.
- Vegavathi River takes its origin in the Pachipenta hills in Eastern Ghats. It is a tributary to Suvarnamukhi, which in turn is a tributary to River Nagavali. Salur town and Paradhi are located on the banks of this river.
- The Pennar river rises at 11 km southwest of Chikkaballapur in Chennakesava Range of Nandi Hills in Karnataka.
- flowing for 597 km to the north and east through several mountains and plains, draining into the Bay of Bengal in Nellore district of Andhra Pradesh.
- The Pennar meets its major tributary Chitravati at Gandalur near the Gandikota at 336 km from its source.
- The Pennar river forces through Gandikota gorge and flows east through a gap in the Eastern Ghats to go to the plains of Coastal Andhra.
- It is an east-flowing river which originates in Kalahandi district of Odisha, flows in Odisha, along its boundary with Andhra Pradesh and finally joins the Bay of Bengal at Kalingapatnam, Andhra Pradesh.
- It is the main river of north-eastern Andhra region and the Boddepalli Rajagopala Rao Project was constructed on it to meet the irrigation needs of the region.
PREVIOUS YEAR QUESTIONS
Q1.Gandikota canyon of South India was created by which one of the following rivers ?(2022)
Q2.With reference to the Indus River system, of the following four rivers, three of them pour into one of the which joins the Indus direct. Among the following, which one is such river that joins the Indus direct?(2021)
Q3. Consider the following Rivers (2021)
1. Brahmani 2. Nagavali
3. Subarnarekha 4. Vamsadhara
Which of the above rise from the Eastern Ghats?
(a) 1 and 2 (b) 2 and 4
(c) 3 and 4 (d) 1 and 3
Q4. Which of the following is/are tributary/ tributaries of Brahmaputra?(2016)
Select the correct answer using the code given below.
(a) 1 only (b) 2 and 3 only
(c) 1 and 3 only(d) 1, 2 and 3
Q5. In which of the following regions of India are shale gas resources found?(2016)
Select the correct answer using the code given below.
(a) 1 and 2 only (b) 3 only
(c) 2 and 3 only (d) 1, 2 and 3
Q6. Recently, linking of which of the following rivers was undertaken?(2016)
(a) Cauvery and Tungabhadra
(b) Godavari and Krishna
(c) Mahanadi and Son
(d) Narmada and Tapti
Answer: b(Pattisima lift irrigation project)
Q7. Consider the following rivers (2015)
Which of the above are tributaries of Godavari ?
(a) 1, 2 and 3 (b) 2, 3 and 4
(c) 1, 2 and 4 (d) 2 and 3 only
Q8. Consider the following rivers: (2014)
Which of the above flows / flow through Arunachal Pradesh?
(a) 1 only (b) 2 and 3 only
(c) 1 and 3 only (d) 1, 2 and 3
Q9. Consider the following pairs-
Which of the above pairs is/are correctly matched?(2013)
(a) 1 and 2
(c) 1 and 3
Q10 . The Narmada river flows to the west, while most other large peninsular rivers flow to the east. Why?(2013)
- It occupies a linear rift valley.
- It flows between the Vindhyas and the Satpuras.
- The land slopes to the west from Central India.
Select the correct answer using the codes given below.
(a) 1 only
(b) 2 and 3
(c) 1 and 3
Q11. Consider the following pairs:
Which of the pairs given above are correctly matched?(2019)
(a) 1, 2 and 4
(b) 1, 3 and 4
(c) 2 and 5
(d) 3 and 5
Q12. Consider the following pairs
Which of the pairs given above are correctly matched?(2019)
(a) 1 and 2 only
(b) 2 and 3 only
(c) 1 and 3 only
(d) 1, 2 and 3