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Daily Current Affairs for UPSC – 4 October 2022

 

Daily Current Affairs for UPSC 2022

Q) Consider the following statements regarding Mediation.

  1. Mediation is an Alternative Dispute Resolution (ADR) mechanism, wherein, an impartial third party assists the disputing parties to resolve their differences.
  2. After listening to both the parties, the mediator passes an order which is binding on both the parties.

Which of these statements are correct?

  1. 2 only
  2. 1 only
  3. None
  4. Both

Explanation:

What is Mediation?

  • Mediation: Mediation is an Alternative Dispute Resolution (ADR) mechanism, wherein, an impartial third party assists the disputing parties to resolve their differences through discussions. (Statement 1 is correct)
  • Statement 2 is not correct as the Mediator assists in resolution and doesn’t make an award which is binding.
  • The Mediation Bill, 2021 was introduced to institutionalize mediation and establish the Mediation Council of India.
  • Since India is a signatory to the Singapore Convention on Mediation, it is necessary to enact a law governing domestic and international mediation.
  • Legislations for mediation:
    • Statutes such as the Code of Civil Procedure, 1908, the Arbitration and Conciliation Act, 1996, the Companies Act, 2013, the Commercial Courts Act, 2015, and the Consumer Protection Act, 2019 have provisions for mediation. There are no standalone legislations.

Daily Current Affairs for UPSC – 3 October 2022

Q) Consider the following statements regarding the Jal Jeevan Mission

  1. The Jal Jeevan Mission aims to provide safe and adequate drinking water through individual household tap connections by 2024 to all households across India.
  2. It is a 100% Central Sector Scheme
  3. Currently, around 62% of rural households in India had fully functional tap water connections within their premises

Which of these statements are not correct?

  1. 1 and 3 only
  2. 2 only
  3. 1 and 2 only
  4. 3 only

Explanation:

Context: According to the survey of Union Ministry of Water Resources, around 62% of rural households in India had fully functional tap water connections within their premises. (Statement 3 is correct)

  • Objective of Survey: To assess the functioning of the government’s Jal Jeevan Mission.
  • Fully functional tap water connection is defined as a household getting at least 55 litres of per capita per day of potable water all through the year.

About Jal Jeevan Mission

  • The Jal Jeevan Mission aims to provide safe and adequate drinking water through individual household tap connections by 2024 to all households in rural India. (Statement 1 is not correct)
Jal Jeevan Mission
Jal Jeevan Mission
  • JJM looks to create a Jan Andolan for water, thereby, making it everyone’s priority.
  • It comes under Jal Shakti Ministry.
  • Financial outlay of ₹3.60 lakh crore, with the Central government funding 50% of the cost with States and Union Territories. (Statement 2 is not correct)
    • Exception: North-eastern and Himalayan States and Union Territories with legislatures, where the Central government funds 90% of the bill and Union Territories without a legislature , where it funds 1000% of the bill.

Q) Swedish geneticist Svante Pääbo has won the 2022 Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine for his discoveries concerning which of the following?

  1. RNA Viruses
  2. Genome research
  3. Genetically Modified Organisms
  4. None of the above

Explanation:

  • Swedish geneticist Svante Pääbo has won the 2022 Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine for his discoveries concerning the genomes of extinct hominins and human evolution.

Key highlights of Svante Pääbo’s Research

  • Sequencing the Neanderthal genome: He was able to sequence the genome of Neanderthal, a species of humans that existed on the earth and went extinct around 30,000 years ago.
    • A seemingly impossible task: After thousands of years, DNA becomes chemically modified and prone to fragmentation and contamination. But Pääbo managed to sequence a region of mitochondrial DNA from a 40,000-year-old piece of bone.
The Nobel Prize for Physiology
The Nobel Prize for Physiology
    • Implication: A comparison of the genome sequencing with the contemporary humans showed that Neanderthals were genetically distinct. Also, Pääbo concluded that a gene transfer had occurred from Neanderthals to Homo sapiens following the migration out of Africa around 70,000 years ago”.

Q) Consider the following statements regarding Nobel Prize

  1. The will of the Swedish scientist Alfred Nobel established the five Nobel prizes in 1895.
  2. Nobel Prize for Peace was later added at the behest of Norwegian Parliament which still elects the Peace Prize Winner.

Which of these statements are correct?

  1. 2 only
  2. Both
  3. None
  4. 1 only

Explanation:

The Nobel Prize
The Nobel Prize

About the Nobel Prizes

  • The will of the Swedish scientist Alfred Nobel established the five Nobel prizes in 1895. (Statement 1 is correct)
  • The Nobel Prizes are a set of recognition given to fields of Chemistry, Literature, Peace, Physics, and Physiology or Medicine. (Statement 2 is not correct)
  • Awarding Institutions:
    • The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences for the Nobel Prize in Physics and Chemistry.
    • Karolinska Institute for the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine.
    • The Swedish Academy for the Nobel Prize in Literature.
    • A Committee of five persons to be elected by the Norwegian Parliament (Storting) for the Nobel Peace Prize.
  • In 1968, the Sveriges Riksbank established the Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel.
  • The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences was given the task to select the Laureates in Economic Sciences starting in 1969.

Q) Consider the following statements regarding PM Krishi Sinchayee Yojana

  1. The scheme is a national mission to enhance farm productivity and ensure better utilization of the resources in the country
  2. PMKSY is a Centrally Sponsored Scheme (Core Scheme) launched in 2015. Centre- States will be 75:25 per cent.
  3. It was launched after amalgamating various schemes on irrigation and watershed development.

Which of these statements are correct?

  1. 2 and 3 only
  2. 1 and 3 only
  3. 1 and 2 only
  4. 1,2, and 3 only

Explanation:

PM Krishi Sinchayee Yojana:

  • The scheme is a national mission to enhance farm productivity and ensure better utilization of the resources in the country. (Statement 1 is correct)
  • PMKSY is a Centrally Sponsored Scheme (Core Scheme) launched in 2015. Centre- States will be 75:25 per cent. In the case of the north-eastern region and hilly states, it will be 90:10. (Statement 2 is correct)
  • Its objectives are:
  • Convergence of investments in irrigation at the field level,
  • To expand the cultivable area under assured irrigation (Har Khet ko pani),
  • To improve on-farm water use efficiency to reduce wastage of water,
  • To enhance the adoption of precision-irrigation and other water saving technologies (More crop per drop),
  • It is formulated by amalgamating ongoing schemes: (Statement 3 is correct)
    1. Accelerated Irrigation Benefit Programme (AIBP) -Ministry of Water Resources, River Development & Ganga Rejuvenation.
    2. Integrated Watershed Management Programme (IWMP) – Department of Land Resources, Ministry of Rural Development.
    3. On-Farm Water Management (OFWM) – Department of Agriculture and Cooperation (DAC).

Q) The term ‘Prachanda’, recently in news, relates to which of the following?

  1. Light Combat Aircraft
  2. Stingray Missile
  3. Light Combat Helicopter
  4. Naval Frigate

Explanation:

Indigenously Designed and Developed Light Combat Helicopter (LCH) named ‘Prachanda’ has been inducted into Indian Air Force (IAF) at the Jodhpur air base.

Genesis of the Light Combat Helicopter (LCH)

  • The need for a homegrown lightweight assault helicopter was realized during the 1999 Kargil war. Need was for precision strikes in all Indian battlefield scenarios.
    • This meant a craft that could operate in very hot deserts and also in very cold high altitudes, in counter-insurgency scenarios to full-scale battle conditions.
  • Accordingly, after initial deliberations, the government sanctioned the LCH project in October 2006, and Hindustan Aeronautics Ltd (HAL) was tasked to develop it.
Light Combat Helicopter India
Light Combat Helicopter India

Q) Consider the following statements basic criteria for regional rural banks or RRBs to raise capital.

  1. They should have a net worth of at least Rs 500 crore during the previous three years.
  2. They must have capital adequacy above the regulatory minimum level of 9% in each of the preceding three years.
  3. The RRBs should have a profitability track record and earned operating profit of minimum Rs 15 crore for at least three out of the previous five years.

How many of the statements are correct?

  1. Only two statements
  2. Only one statement
  3. All three statements
  4. None

Explanation:

  • The Union government issued draft guidelines that set certain basic criteria for regional rural banks (RRBs) to raise capital.

New Draft guidelines for RRBs

Net worth: They should have a net worth of at least Rs 300 crore during the previous three years. (Statement 1 is not correct)

 

Capital adequacy: They must have capital adequacy above the regulatory minimum level of 9% in each of the preceding three years. (Statement 2 is correct)
Profitability: The RRBs should have a profitability track record and earned operating profit of minimum Rs 15 crore for at least three out of the previous five years. (Statement 3 is also correct)
Losses: There should not be any accumulated losses. A return on equity of minimum 10% in three out of the preceding five years should have given by the lender.
Identifying lender: The responsibility of identifying suitable lenders for issuing initial public offering (IPO) has been given to the respective sponsor banks.
Selecting for IPO: The sponsor bank will take into account the relevant norms and regulations of the SEBI and RBI regarding capital raising and disclosure requirements while identifying RRBs for IPO.

Q) Consider the following statements regarding Biomass Co-firing.

  1. Biomass co-firing is the practice of substituting a part of the fuel in coal thermal plants with biomass.
  2. The Ministry of Coal had ordered that all thermal power plants must ensure 5% of biomass co-mixing by October 2022.

Which of these statements are not correct?

  1. Both
  2. 2 only
  3. None
  4. 1 only

Explanation:

  • The Power Ministry had ordered that all thermal power plants must ensure 5% of biomass co-mixing by October 2022. (Statement 2 is not correct)
  • Thermal power plants that do not comply with the policy on biomass co-firing would face cut in coal supply.
  • India has around 180 thermal power plants, out of which 39 of them have co-fired biomass pellets.
  • In the pollution-hit Delhi-NCR region, 10 thermal power plants had started co-firing with biomass and coal.

What is Biomass co-firing?

  • Biomass co-firing is the practice of substituting a part of the fuel in coal thermal plants with biomass. (Statement 1 is correct)
  • These biomass pellets are made from wood wastes, agricultural waste, commercial grasses, and forestry residues.

Q) Which of the following statements regarding Ocean Acidification in incorrect?

  1. It refers to an increase in the pH of the ocean over an extended period of time.
  2. It is caused primarily by uptake of carbon dioxide (CO2) from the atmosphere.
  3. The ocean absorbs about 30 percent of the CO2 that is released in the atmosphere.
  4. As levels of atmospheric CO2 increase, so do the levels in the ocean.

Explanation:

What is Ocean Acidification?

  • It refers to a reduction in the pH of the ocean over an extended period of time, caused primarily by uptake of carbon dioxide (CO2) from the atmosphere. (Statement a is not correct)
  • The ocean absorbs about 30 percent of the CO2 that is released in the atmosphere, and as levels of atmospheric CO2 increase, so do the levels in the ocean.
  • Process: When CO2 is absorbed by seawater, a series of chemical reactions occur resulting in the increased concentration of hydrogen ions. This increase causes the seawater to become more acidic and causes carbonate ions to be relatively less abundant.

Q) Which of the following missions of ISRO has recently lost its communication with the ground stations?

  1. Chandrayaan 2
  2. Chandrayaan 1
  3. Mangalyaan
  4. Aditya L1

Explanation:

Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) confirmed that the Mars Orbiter craft has lost communication with ground station.

  • It’s non-recoverable and the Mangalyaan mission has attained end-of-life.

Mars Orbiter Mission (MoM)

  • The Mars Orbiter Mission (MOM), commonly referred to as Mangalyaan.
  • Mangalyaan was launched in 2013 onboard PSLV-C25 as the first interplanetary mission from India, making ISRO the fourth space agency in the world to launch such a mission beyond Earth’s orbit.
  • After completing 300 days of interplanetary journey, it was inserted to the Martian orbit on September 24, 2014.
  • India is the first Asian nation to reach the Mars orbit and the first in the world to achieve it on its first attempt.
  • Aim: Studying Martian atmosphere.
  • Objective: To explore Martian surface features, mineralogy, morphology, and atmosphere using indigenous scientific instruments.
    • To develop technologies required in planning, designing, management and operations of an interplanetary mission.

Daily Current Affairs for UPSC – 6 October 2022

 

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