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Daily Current Affairs for UPSC – 30 September 2022

 

Daily Current Affairs for UPSC 2022

Q1. Global Innovation Index (GII), recently seen in the news is released by which of the following Organisations?

  1. World Economic Forum
  2. World Bank
  3. World Intellectual Property Organization
  4. US Chambers of Commerce

Explanation:

  • India has climbed six spots and has been ranked 40th in the Global Innovation Index (GII) 2022 rankings.

About Global Innovation Index (GII) 2022

  • Publisher: The GII is released annually by the World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO), a specialized agency of the United Nations.
  • Objective: It ranks the innovation performance of around 132 economies while highlighting innovation strengths and weaknesses.

Daily Current Affairs for UPSC – 29th September 2022

Q2. Consider the following statements in the context of International Solar Alliance (ISA):

  1. The International Solar Alliance (ISA) is a collaborative platform for increased deployment of solar energy technologies for bringing energy access, ensuring energy security, and driving energy transition in all the countries of the world.
  2. Majority of countries in the alliance are sunshine countries, which lie either completely or partly between the Tropic of Cancer and the Tropic of Capricorn.

Which of the above is/ are correct?

  1. Both 1 and 2.
  2. Neither 1 nor 2.
  3. 1 Only.            
  4. 2 only.

Explanation:

International Solar Alliance (ISA)

  • The International Solar Alliance (ISA) is a collaborative platform for increased deployment of solar energy technologies for bringing energy access, ensuring energy security, and driving energy transition in its member states. So, statement 1 is incorrect.
  • Members: Majority of countries in the alliance are sunshine countries, which lie either completely or partly between the Tropic of Cancer and the Tropic of Capricorn. Statement 2 is correct.
  • ISA will particularly focus on delivering positive impact in countries categorized as Least Developed Countries (LDCs) and the Small Island Developing States (SIDS).

Q3. Consider the following statements on the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO):

  1. The ICAO is an intergovernmental specialized agency but is not associated with the United Nations (UN).
  2. ICAO aims to develop a safe and efficient international air transport for peaceful purposes and ensure a reasonable opportunity for every country to operate international airlines.

Which of the above is/ are not correct?

  1. Both 1 and 2.
  2. Neither 1 nor 2.
  3. 1 Only.
  4. 2 only.

Explanation:

International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO):

  • The ICAO is an intergovernmental specialized agency associated with the United Nations (UN). It was established in 1947 by the Convention on International Civil Aviation (1944), Chicago. Statement 1 is incorrect.
  • ICAO aims to develop a safe and efficient international air transport for peaceful purposes and ensure a reasonable opportunity for every country to operate international airlines. So, Statement 2 is correct.

Functions:

  • Setting and reviewing international technical standards for aircraft operation and design
  • Investigation of crash
  • License for personnel
  • Telecommunications and meteorology
  • Air navigation equipment
  • Ground facilities for air transport
  • Search-and-rescue missions

Q4. With reference to the National Clean Air Programme (NCAP), consider the following:

  1. It is a short-term, time-bound, national level strategy to tackle the air pollution problem across the country in a comprehensive manner.
  2. Some Smart Cities have established Integrated Command and Control Centres (ICCCs) which are connected to Air Quality Monitors (AQMs) for effective monitoring.
  3. PRANA (Portal for Regulation of Air-pollution in non-Attainment cities) portal monitors the implementation of NCAP.

Which of the above is/are correct?

  1. 1, 2 and 3
  2. 1 and 2 only
  3. 1 and 3 only
  4. 2 and 3 only

Explanation:

National Clean Air Programme (NCAP)

  • It is a long-term, time-bound, national level strategy to tackle the air pollution problem across the country in a comprehensive manner. So, statement 1 is not correct.
  • Implementation of the city specific action plans are regularly monitored by Committees at Central and State level namely Steering Committee, Monitoring Committee and Implementation Committee.
  • Air quality of cities is monitored by State Pollution Control Boards.
  • Some Smart Cities have established Integrated Command and Control Centres (ICCCs) which are connected to Air Quality Monitors (AQMs) for effective monitoring. Statement 2 is correct.
  • PRANA (Portal for Regulation of Air-pollution in non-Attainment cities) portal monitors the implementation of NCAP. Statement 3 is correct.

Q5. With reference to the National Ambient Air Quality Standards, consider the following statements:

  1. They are the standards for ambient air quality set by the Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB).
  2. The CPCB has been conferred this power by the Water (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act, 1981.
  3. Ambient Air Quality Standards contains 5 major pollutants viz S02(Sulphur di oxide), N02(Nitrogen di oxide), PM 2.5, PM 10, CO (Carbon Mono oxide)
  4. Swachh Vayu Sarvekshan is a ranking of Cities under National Clean Air Programme (NCAP).

Which of the above is/are correct?

  1. 1 and 4 only
  2. 1, 3 and 4 only.
  3. 1, 2, 3 and 4 only
  4. 2 and 3 only

Explanation:

Swachh Vayu Sarvekshan- Ranking of Cities under National Clean Air Programme (NCAP)

  • It provides a tool to cities to plan their actions in order to improve the air quality.
  • It is based on the actions taken by the cities to improve the air quality in different domains.
  • It provides a planning implementation tool to improve the air quality and the assessment of the cities regarding how better they have aligned their actions to improve the air quality. Statement 4 is correct.

National Ambient Air Quality Standards

  • They are the standards for ambient air quality set by the Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB). Statement 1 is correct.
  • The CPCB has been conferred this power by the Air (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act, 1981.Statement 2 is not correct.
  • Ambient Air Quality Standards contains 12 pollutants. They are Sulphur dioxide (SO2), Nitrogen dioxide (NO2), The particulate matter having a size less than 10 microns (PM10), The particulate matter having a size less than 2.5 microns (PM2.5), Ozone, Lead, Carbon monoxide (CO), Arsenic, Nickel, Benzene, Ammonia, and Benzopyrene. Statement 3 is not correct.

Q6. Consider the following statements and identify the incorrect statement.

  1. Gir National Park and Wildlife Sanctuary is the only abode of the Asiatic lion.
  2. Asiatic lions are listed in Schedule I of Wildlife (Protection) Act 1972.
  3. Asiatic Cheetahs are critically endangered and survive only in India.
  4. On the IUCN Red List, it is declared Endangered.

Explanation:

Asiatic lions:

  • The Asiatic lions separated from main species about 55,000 years ago and then evolved into a different subspecies.

Range:

  • The Asiatic lions could be found across north Africa along the Mediterranean, Asia Minor, India and also a part of Europe.
  • Asiatic lions in India were once distributed up to the state of West Bengal in east.
  • Currently, Gir National Park and Wildlife Sanctuary is the only abode of the Asiatic lion.

Protection status:

  • Listed in Schedule I of Wildlife (Protection) Act 1972
  • Appendix I of CITES
  • Endangered on IUCN Red List

Threats:

  • Habitat fragmentation: Three major roads and a railway track pass through the Gir Protected Area (PA). This has prevented lions from freely migrating from one area to another.
  • Genetic inbreeding: Asiatic lion faces threat of genetic inbreeding because of a single population living in one place.
  • Disease outbreak: The population of a whole sub-species present in a single area could make them vulnerable to disease outbreak. There are high chances of extinction in case the population is concentrated.

Cheetahs

  • African cheetahs: They are native to Southern and Eastern Africa in regions spanning Namibia, South Africa, Tanzania, Botswana, and Kenya etc.
  • Protection status: The IUCN status of African Cheetahs is Vulnerable.
  • Asiatic Cheetah: Asiatic Cheetahs are critically endangered and survive only in Iran. It was declared extinct in India in 1952. So, third statement is incorrect.­

Q7: With reference to the octane number consider the following:

  1. An octane rating, or octane number, is a standard measure of a fuel’s ability to withstand compression in an internal combustion engine without detonating.
  2. The lower the octane number, the more compression the fuel can withstand before detonating.

Which of the above is/ are correct?

  1. Both 1 and 2.
  2. Neither 1 nor 2.
  3. 1 Only.
  4. 2 only.

Explanation:

  • An octane rating, or octane number, is a standard measure of a fuel’s ability to withstand compression in an internal combustion engine without detonating. Statement 1 is correct.
  • The higher the octane number, the more compression the fuel can withstand before detonating. Statement 2 is not correct.

Q8. With reference to the Mahakaleshwar Temple consider the following:

  1. As per Hindu scriptures, the temple was constructed by Lord Brahma and is presently located alongside the holy river Shipra i.e., a tributary of Yamuna River.
  2. Mahakaleshwar Jyotirlinga in Ujjain is one of the 12 jyotirlingas considered the most sacred abodes of Shiva.

Which of the above is/ are correct?

  1. Both 1 and 2.
  2. Neither 1 nor 2.
  3. 1 Only.
  4. 2 only.

Explanation:

About Mahakaleshwar Corridor

  • Mahakal Maharaj Mandir Parisar Vistar Yojna is a plan for the expansion, beautification, and decongestion of the Mahakaleshwar temple and its adjoining area in Ujjain district.
  • Under the plan, the Mahakaleshwar temple premises of around 2.82 hectares is being increased to 47 hectares, which will be developed in two phases by the Ujjain district administration.
  • This will include the 17 hectares of Rudrasagar Lake.
  • The project is expected to increase annual footfall in the city from the current 1.50 crore to nearly 3 crores.

About Mahakaleshwar Temple

  • Mahakaleshwar, which means the ‘Lord of time’, refers to Lord Shiva.
  • As per Hindu scriptures, the temple was constructed by Lord Brahma and is presently located alongside the holy river Shipra (a tributary of Chambal River). So, Statement 1 is not correct.
  • Mahakaleshwar Jyotirlinga in Ujjain is one of the 12 jyotirlingas considered the most sacred abodes of Shiva. Statement 2 is correct.
  • As per records, the temple’s Mahakal Lingam is believed to be Swayambhu (self-manifested) and unlike any other jyotirlingas in the country, the idol of Mahakaleshwar faces south.

Q9. Consider the following statements.

  1. DREAM city project is an upcoming business district in Mumbai and will be its third smart city.
  2. Close to 90% of the World’s diamonds pass through Gujarat for polishing, making the Indian state a pivotal member of the diamond supply chain.

Which of the above is/ are correct?

  1. Both 1 and 2.
  2. Neither 1 nor 2.
  3. 1 Only.
  4. 2 only.

Explanation:

DREAM City project

  • Once the DREAM city project is completed, Surat will emerge as the safest and convenient diamond trading hub in the world. So, statement 1 is not correct.

About Diamond Research and Mercantile (DREAM) City

  • It is an upcoming business district in Surat and will be Gujarat’s third smart city.
  • It will be built on 2,000 acres of land near Khajod, along the lines of the Gujarat International Finance Tec-City (GIFT City) and Dholera Smart city near Ahmedabad.
  • The DREAM City will mainly house an international diamond trading hub, Surat Diamond Bourse (SDB), to be spread on 579 acres of land.
  • International level banking and insurance services, as well as import-export facilities, will be made available at the Diamond Bourse.

Diamond trade in India

  • As of February 2021, India’s gold and diamond trade contributed ~7.5% to India’s GDP and 14% to India’s total merchandise exports.
  • Close to 90% of the World’s diamonds pass through Gujarat for polishing, making the Indian state a pivotal member of the diamond supply chain. Statement 2 is correct.

Q10. The world’s first CNG (Compressed Natural Gas) terminal has been launched at:

  1. Bhavnagar
  2. Raipur
  3. Tarapur
  4. Surat

Explanation:

  • The foundation stone for the world’s first CNG (Compressed Natural Gas) terminal at Bhavnagar, Gujarat, has been laid down.

More on the News

  • The proposed port terminal will have a capacity of 4.65 million Tonnes Per Annum (MTPA), of which the capacity of the CNG terminal will be 0.3 MTPA.
  • Significance of project: The port is very near to the Dholera Special Investment Region (SIR) and is expected to serve the industries that set up base in the region.

Daily Current Affairs for UPSC – 1 October 2022

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