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Daily Current Affairs for UPSC – 30 November 2022

 

Daily Current Affairs for UPSC 2022

Q) With reference to transfer of High Court judges, consider the following statements:

  1. A judge can be transferred by the President after consulting the Chief Justice of India.
  2. The Chief Justice of India should consult the Chief Justice of the High Court to which judge is being transferred.
  3. The consent of the judge getting transferred is required before taking any decision.

Which of the statements given above are correct?

  1. 1 and 2 only
  2. 2 and 3 only
  3. 1 and 3 only
  4. 1, 2 and 3

Daily Current Affairs for UPSC – 29  November 2022

Explanation:

  • Statement 1 is correct: The President can transfer a judge from one high court to another after consulting the Chief Justice of India. On transfer, he is entitled to receive in addition to his salary such compensatory allowance as may be determined by Parliament.
  • Statement 2 is correct: In the Third Judges case (1998), the Supreme Court opined that in case of the transfer of high court judges, the Chief Justice of India should consult, in addition to the collegium of four seniormost judges of the Supreme Court, the chief justice of the two high courts (one from which the judge is being transferred and the other receiving him). Thus, the sole opinion of the chief justice of India does not constitute the ‘consultation’ process
  • Statement 3 is incorrect: The proposal for transferring a HC judge (including a Chief Justice) should be initiated by the CJI and the consent of the judge is not required. In the case of transfer of a Chief Justice, only the views of one or more knowledgeable Supreme Court judges need to be taken into account. In 1994, the Supreme Court held that judicial review is necessary to check arbitrariness in transfer of judges. But, only the judge who is transferred can challenge it.

Q) Consider the following statements, about the mpox disease:

  1. It is caused by DNA-based orthopoxviruses.
  2. It can be transmitted from the mother to the fetus through the placenta.
  3. At present, there is no specific treatment to cure the disease.

Which of the statements given above are correct?

  1. 1 and 2 only
  2. 2 and 3 only
  3. 1 and 3 only
  4. 1, 2 and 3

Explanation:

  • Statement 1 is correct: Monkeypox (mpox) disease is similar to smallpox. It is an enveloped double-stranded DNA virus that belongs to the Orthopoxvirusgenus of the Poxviridae Monkeypox occurs in countries in Central and West Africa. The disease is prevalent across countries such as DRC, Central African Republic, Republic of the Congo, Gabon, Cameroon, Nigeria, Côte d’Ivoire, Liberia, and Sierra Leone.
  • Statement 2 is correct: Monkeypox disease is transmitted from animal to human. The infection has been detected in squirrels, rats, and some species of monkeys. Human to human transmission is very rare. It usually spreads through contact with bodily fluids, lesions on the skin, respiratory droplets and contaminated objects. Transmission can also occur via the placenta from mother to fetus (which can lead to congenital monkeypox) or during close contact during and after birth. While close physical contact is a well-known risk factor for transmission, it is unclear at this time if monkeypox can be transmitted specifically through sexual transmission routes.
  • Statement 3 is correct: The symptoms include fever, headache, muscle aches, back ache, and exhaustion. It causes swelling in lymph nodes. Rash starts on the face and spreads to other parts of the body. Percentage of people dying from disease has varied between 0 and 11% in documented cases. It is higher among young children. There is no specific treatment. Supportive treatments have to be provided depending on the symptoms.

Q) Which of the following are the causes of volcanism?

  1. Convectional currents.
  2. Chemical reactions of radioactive substances.
  3. Subduction along plate margins.
  4. Temperature gradient between Earth’s layers.

Select the correct answer using the code given below:

  1. 1, 2 and 3 only
  2. 2, 3 and 4 only
  3. 4 only
  4. 1, 2, 3 and 4

Explanation:

  • Option (4) is correct: A volcano is an opening in the earth’s crust through which lava, volcanic ash, and gases escape. Volcanic eruptions can happen on land or underwater. Various causes of volcanism are as follows:
  • The chemical reactions of the radioactive substances deep within the interior of the earth generate tremendous amount of heat.
  • Temperature gradient causing a huge difference between the inner layers and the outer layers of the earth due to differential amount of radioactivity.
  • Convectional currents are generated in the outer core as well as the mantle due to temperature gradient. Convectional currents in the mantle create convergent and divergent boundaries.
  • At the divergent boundary molten, semi-molten and sometimes gaseous material appears on earth usually at the plate margin. The earthquakes may expose fault zones through which magma may escape.
  • At the convergent boundary, subduction of denser plate creates magma at high pressure which will escape to the surface. Because of high pressure, the magma and gases escape with great velocity as the pressure is released through eruptions.

Q) With reference to tea cultivation, consider the following statements:

  1. It grows well in loamy forest soils that are rich in humus and iron.
  2. It requires light rainfall and almost fifty frost-free days for its growth.
  3. India is the largest producer of tea in the world.

Select the correct answer using the code given below:

  1. 1 only
  2. 1 and 2 only
  3. 2 and 3 only
  4. 1, 2 and 3

Explanation:

  • Statement 1 is correct: Tea cultivation is an example of plantation agriculture. It is also an important beverage crop introduced in India initially by the British. The tea plant grows well in tropical and sub-tropical climates endowed deep, well-drained, loamy forest soils that are rich in humus and iron.
  • Statement 2 is incorrect: Tea bushes require warm and moist frost-free climate all through the year. The optimum temperature must be 20 to 33 degree C. Rainfall between 150 cm to 300 cm should be well distributed throughout the year. Tea is a labour intensive industry. It requires abundant cheap and skilled labour. Tea is processed within the tea garden to restore its freshness. Major teaproducing states are Assam, hills of Darjeeling and Jalpaiguri districts, West Bengal, Tamil Nadu and Kerala. Apart from these, Himachal Pradesh, Uttarakhand, Meghalaya, Andhra Pradesh and Tripura are also tea-producing states in the country. Cotton requires high temperature, light rainfall or irrigation, 210 frost-free days and bright sun-shine for its growth.
  • Statement 3 is incorrect: India is the world’s second-largest tea producer after China. Majority of tea is consumed domestically. Major export destinations are Russia, Iran, the UAE, the US, the UK, Germany and China.

Q) Consider the following pairs:

Military exercise  Associated countries
1. Hiramau Shakti  India and Indonesia
2. AustraHind  India and Australia
3. Sampriti  India and Bangladesh
4. Samudra Laksamana  India and Sri Lanka

How many pairs given above are correctly matched?

  1. Only one pair
  2. Only two pairs
  3. Only three pairs
  4. All four pairs

Explanation:

  • Pair 1 is incorrectly matched: India–Malaysia joint military exercise “Harimau Shakti 2022” is an annual training exercise between the Indian and Malaysian Army. It focuses on enhancing inter-operability in planning and execution of various operations in jungle terrain.
  • Pair 2 is correctly matched: Bilateral training exercise between the armies of India and Australia, called AustraHind is a yearly event held alternately in India and Australia. The 2022 exercise is the first exercise in the AUSTRA HIND series of exercise, with all arms and services contingents from both armies participating. The exercise aims to build positive military relations, inculcate each other’s best practices and enhance the ability to operate together while undertaking multi-domain operations in semi-desert terrain under a UN peace enforcement mandate.
  • Pair 3 is correctly matched: “Ex SAMPRITI” is a bilateral Joint Military Exercise between India and Bangladesh. The aim of the exercise is to strengthen the military relations between the two countries. The exercise also provides an opportunity to the contingents from both the Armies to understand each other’s tactical drills and operational techniques as well as to share their experience on Counter Insurgency/ Counter Terrorism, Peace Keeping and Disaster Relief Operation under the United Nations mandate.
  • Pair 4 is incorrectly matched: The Royal Malaysian Navy (RMN) and the Indian Navy conducts a bilateral exercise known as the Samudra Laksamana Exercise. Both navies conducted sea phase training in waters around the South China Sea and a series of tactical manoeuvres as well as helicopter landings on ships.

UPSC Mains Result 2022

 

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