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Daily Current Affairs for UPSC – 29 September 2022

 

Daily Current Affairs for UPSC 2022

Q1. Consider the following statements:

  1. Poliomyelitis is a highly infectious disease caused by bacteria.
  2. The type 2 strain of Poliomyelitis is still in circulation.
  3. It spreads mainly through the faecal-oral route.

Which of the above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only.
  2. 1 and 2 only.
  3. 3 only.
  4. 1 and 3 only.

Explanation:

  • Poliomyelitis is a highly infectious viral disease that can cause disability and can prove fatal in some cases.
  • So statement 1 is incorrect.

Strains of polio virus:

  • Type 1 – Still in circulation. So statement 2 is incorrect.
  • Type 2 – Eradicated in September 2015
  • Type 3 – Eradicated in October 2019.
  • The virus spreads mainly through the faecal-oral route. It can spread between population through contaminated water or food. So statement 3 is correct.

Daily Current Affairs for UPSC – 28th September 2022

Q2. Consider the following statements in the context of Circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus (cVDPV):

  1. If an Inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV) vaccinated person is infected with wild poliovirus, the virus can not multiply inside intestines due to vaccination.
  2. In some cases, this excreted vaccine virus can continue to circulate for a longer time period, with chances of undergoing genetic changes.

Which of the above is/ are incorrect?

  1. Both 1 and 2.
  2. Neither 1 nor 2.
  3. 1 Only.
  4. 2 only.

Explanation:

Circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus (cVDPV):

  • If an Inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV) vaccinated person is infected with wild poliovirus, the virus can still multiply inside intestines and be found in faeces. So statement 1 is incorrect.
  • However, in some cases, this excreted vaccine virus can continue to circulate for a longer time period, with chances of undergoing genetic changes. This virus is known as cVDPV. So statement 2 is correct.

Q3. Consider the following statements on the National Testing Agency (NTA):

  1. It was established as a company registered under the Companies Act, 2013.
  2. It is a statutory and self-sustained testing organization to conduct entrance examinations for admission/fellowship in higher educational institutions.

Which of the above is/ are correct?

  1. Both 1 and 2.
  2. Neither 1 nor 2.
  3. 1 Only.
  4. 2 only.

Explanation:

National Testing Agency (NTA)

  • It was established as a Society registered under the Indian Societies Registration Act, 1860.
  •  So statement 1 is incorrect.
  • It is an autonomous and self-sustained testing organization to conduct entrance examinations for admission/fellowship in higher educational institutions.
  •  So statement 2 is incorrect.
  • Objectives: To conduct efficient, transparent and international standards tests in order to assess the competency of candidates for admission and recruitment purposes.

Q4. With reference to the Chief of Defence Staff (CDS), consider the following:

  1. The Chief of Defence Staff would function as the Principal Military Adviser to Defence Minister and Permanent Chairman Chiefs of Staff Committee (COSC).
  2. The CDS will function as the Secretary of Department of Military Affairs (DMA), which was newly created in the Ministry of Defence (MoD).
  3. The CDS is a member of Nuclear Command Authority but not of National Security Council.

Which of the above is/are correct?

  1. 1, 2 and 3 only
  2. 1 and 2 only
  3. 1 and 3 only
  4. 2 and 3 only

Explanation:

Chief of Defence Staff (CDS)

  • The CDS would function as the Principal Military Adviser to Defence Minister and Permanent Chairman Chiefs of Staff Committee (COSC). Statement 1 is correct.
  • He will act as the single-point military advisor to the government and Prime Minister of India.
  • The CDS will function as the Secretary of Department of Military Affairs (DMA), which was newly created in the Ministry of Defence (MoD). Statement 2 is correct.
  • The CDS will be tasked with standardizing weapons procurement procedures and combining operations of the Army, Air Force and Navy.
  • The CDS is a member of:
  • Chiefs of Staff Committee
  • National Security Council
  • Defence Acquisition Council
  • Defence Planning Committee
  • Nuclear Command Authority
  • Defence Cyber Agency
  • Defence Space Agency

Statement 3 is incorrect.

Q5. With reference to the Pradhan Mantri Garib Kalyan Anna Yojana (PMGKAY), consider the following statements:

  1. The Pradhan Mantri Garib Kalyan Anna Yojana (PMGKAY) was launched to provide free 5 kg foodgrains per person per month to about 80 crore beneficiaries.
  2. It was announced as a part of the Pradhan Mantri Garib Kalyan Yojana/Package, which is a comprehensive relief package of Rs 1.70 Lakh Crore Yojana for the poor to help them fight the battle against Coronavirus.
  3. The program is operated under the Ministry of Social Justice and Empowerment.
  4. Its coverage is exclusive of the beneficiaries under NFSA.

Which of the above is/are correct?

  1. 1 and 2 only
  2. 2, 3 and 4 only.
  3. 1, 2, 3 and 4 only
  4. 2 and 3 only

Explanation:

Pradhan Mantri Garib Kalyan Anna Yojana (PMGKAY)

  • It is a food security welfare scheme announced by the Government of India in March 2020, during the COVID-19 pandemic in India.
  • The Pradhan Mantri Garib Kalyan Anna Yojana (PMGKAY) was launched to provide free 5 kg foodgrains per person per month to about 80 crore beneficiaries covered under the National Food Security Act (NFSA).
  • The free grains are over and above the normal quota provided under the NFSA at a highly subsidised rate of ₹2-3 per kg.
  • It was announced as a part of the Pradhan Mantri Garib Kalyan Yojana/Package, which is a comprehensive relief package of Rs 1.70 Lakh Crore Yojana for the poor to help them fight the battle against Coronavirus.
  • Ministry: The program is operated by the Department of Food and Public Distribution under the Ministry of Consumer Affairs, Food and Public Distribution. Statement 3 is incorrect.
  • Objective: It is aimed at providing free foodgrains — 5 kg per person per month — to eligible beneficiaries of the National Food Security Act (NFSA), 2013. This is over and above their monthly entitlement under the NFSA.
  • Coverage: PMGKAY provides food grains to the beneficiaries of NFSA, which covers up to 75% of the rural population and 50% of the urban population. The overall national coverage of the NFSA is about 67.5 per cent. Statement 4 is incorrect.

Q6. The river originates in the Chemayungdung glacier in the Kailash range in the south of the Tibet Autonomous Region (at a 5300 m elevation), traverses China (for a distance of 1625 km), India (for 918 km), and Bangladesh (for 337 km, where it is called Jamuna). It is:

  1. Teesta
  2. Padma
  3. Brahmaputra
  4. Rangeet

Explanation:

Brahmaputra

  • It originates in the Chemayungdung glacier in the Kailash range in the south of the Tibet Autonomous Region (at a 5300 m elevation), traverses China (for a distance of 1625 km), India (for 918 km), and Bangladesh (for 337 km, where it is called Jamuna).
  • It merges with the Ganges (Padma) and then with the Meghna in Bangladesh, and eventually flows into the Bay of Bengal.
  • The Brahmaputra river basin (BRB) is based within China (50.5%), India (33.6%), Bangladesh (8.1%), and Bhutan (7.8%).

Q7: With reference to the Water Convention consider the following:

  1. It is also known as the Convention on the Protection and Use of Transboundary Watercourses and International Lakes and was adopted in Helsinki in 2012 and entered into force in 2016.
  2. The Convention is a unique legally binding instrument promoting the sustainable management of shared water resources.

Which of the above is/ are correct?

  1. Both 1 and 2.
  2. Neither 1 nor 2.
  3. 1 Only.
  4. 2 only.

Explanation:

Water Convention

  • The Convention on the Protection and Use of Transboundary Watercourses and International Lakes (Water Convention) was adopted in Helsinki in 1992 and entered into force in 1996. Statement 1 is incorrect.
  • The Convention is a unique legally binding instrument promoting the sustainable management of shared water resources, the implementation of the Sustainable Development Goals, the prevention of conflicts, and the promotion of peace and regional integration. Statement 2 is correct.

Q8. ‘Sign Learn’ app, recent seen in the news has been launched by which of the following ministries?

  1. Ministry of Social Justice and Empowerment
  2. Ministry of Road Transport and Highways
  3. Ministry of Human Resources Development
  4. Ministries of commerce & Industry

Explanation:

  • Government of India (Ministry of Social Justice and Empowerment) has launched an Indian Sign Language (ISL) dictionary mobile app called ‘Sign Learn’ containing 10,000 words.

About Sign Learn app:

  • The app is based on the Indian sign language dictionary of the Indian Sign Language Research And Training Centre (ISLRTC).
  • The Android and IOS version of the app is available. The words in the dictionary can be searched through English or Hindi medium.

Q9. Consider the following statements related to the discovery of ancient artifacts by The Archeological Survey of India (ASI) at Vadakkupattu village.

  1. The site of Vadakkupattu village lies in the state of Karnataka.
  2. Chiselled stone tools such as hand axes, scrapers, cleavers and choppers belonging to the Mesolithic era were discovered at Vadakkupattu.

Which of the above is/ are correct?

  1. Both 1 and 2.
  2. Neither 1 nor 2.
  3. 1 Only.
  4. 2 only.

Explanation:

  • The Archeological Survey of India (ASI) has discovered ancient artifacts near Vadakkupattu village in Tamil Nadu. Statement 1 is incorrect.

Discoveries at the site:

  • Chiselled stone tools such as hand axes, scrapers, cleavers and choppers belonging to the Mesolithic era were discovered. Statement 2 is correct.
  • It was likely a place where stone tools were produced for hunting.
  • Rouletted ceramics belonging to the Sangam age.
  • Roman amphora sherds, and glass beads, indicating trade with Rome.
  • They also discovered gold decorations, terracotta toys, beads, bangles, pot sherds, and coins.
  • Sculptures ranging from the early Pallava period (275 CE) to the late Pallavas were also unearthed.
  • Significance:
  • The artifacts from Stone Age reveal a culture before it developed into a civilisation.
  • The discoveries play a crucial role in bridging the gap in Tamil history.

Vadakkupattu site:

  • The archeological site at Guruvan Medu (Natham Medu) is located near Vadakkupattu village. It was originally discovered in 1922.

Q10. ‘Silphion’ Plant, recently seen in the news is famous for which of the following purposes ?

  1. Its medicinal properties.
  2. Its use as a spice.
  3. Its use as an aphrodisiac.
  4. a,b, and c

Explanation:

  • A recent study suggests that a Mediterranean medicinal plant that mysteriously vanished 2,000 years ago may still exist.

About the Silphion Plant

  • Silphion was an ancient medicinal plant most likely obtained from a Ferula species growing in the Cyrene region of Libya ca. 2500 years ago.
  • Due to its superior medicinal properties, it was regarded as ‘Cure-All’ plant in the ancient times.
  • Silphion was used to treat various health problems, including goiter, sciatica (nerve pain), toothache, intestinal disorders, hormonal disorders, epilepsy, tetanus, polyps (abnormal growth of tissues) and malignant tumours, according to studies.
  • Also, the resin of the silphion was extensively used as a spice, perfume, aphrodisiac, and contraceptive.
  • Due to its numerous therapeutic uses and spice qualities, it was the major economic resource of the Cyrenaic region of Libya for six centuries.
  • Overharvesting, widespread deforestation, human-induced environmental changes may have driven the plant into extinction, many researchers believed.

Daily Current Affairs for UPSC – 30th September 2022

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