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Daily Current Affairs for UPSC – 29 November 2022

 

Daily Current Affairs for UPSC 2022

Q) Recently seen in news, the term ‘bluebugging’ is best described by which one of the following:

  1. Development of antibiotic-resistant bacteria due to misuse of antibiotics.
  2. Appearance of blue-colored cotton stalks due to an attack of a virus disease
  3. Hacking of the critical infrastructure of a country by deploying malware
  4. Hacking of the devices through discoverable Bluetooth connections.

Daily Current Affairs for UPSC – 28  November 2022

Explanation:

  • Option (4) is correct: Bluebugging is a form of hacking that lets attackers access a device through its discoverable Bluetooth connection. Once a device or phone is bluebugged, a hacker can listen to the calls, read and send messages and steal and modify contacts. Several smart phones have their Bluetooth settings on discovery mode as it is a default setting, making it easy for hackers to access the phones when they are within 10 metres from the device. They can install malware in the compromised device to gain unauthorized access to it. Cybersecurity experts note that apps that let users connect smartphones or laptops to wireless earplugs can record conversations, and are vulnerable to hacks, through a process called bluebugging. To prevent bluebugging, these steps can be followed:
    • turning off Bluetooth and disconnecting paired Bluetooth devices when not in use; updating the device’s system software to the latest version;
    • limiting the use of public Wi-Fi; using VPN as an additional security measure;
    • modern anti-virus softwares can also help thwart such attacks.

Q) With reference to Pradhan Mantri MUDRA Yojana (PMMY), consider the following statements:

  1. Private sector bank PMMY accounts constitute as much as half of the total PMMY accounts.
  2. Borrowers who fail to repay their loans under PMMY will be given a subsidy by the government.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Explanation:

  • Statement 1 is correct: Pradhan Mantri MUDRA Yojana (PMMY) was launched on April 8, 2015 for providing loans up to 10 lakh to the non-corporate, non-farm small/micro enterprises. PMMY aims to refinance collateral-free loans provided by the lenders to small borrowers and to extend the affordable credit to MSMEs. In terms of the number of MUDRA loan accounts, private banks catered to 10.46 crore beneficiaries or almost 53 per cent of the total 19.78 crore loan accounts. On the contrary, public-sector banks covered just 4.66 crore beneficiaries, or under 24 per cent of the total Mudra loan accounts. The share of private sector banks is very high in Shishu category loans, while the share of public sector banks is high in Tarun category loans.
  • Statement 2 is incorrect: Under the guidelines of the MUDRA scheme, it would be ensured that at least 60% of the credit flows to ‘Shishu’ Category Units. There will be no subsidy for the loan given under PMMY.

Q) With reference to Black Corals, consider the following statements:

  1. They are completely deep-ocean corals.
  2. They are only found in the regions around the Arctic Circle.
  3. They are dependent on zooplankton for nutrition.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 and 2 only
  2. 2 and 3 only
  3. 3 only
  4. 1, 2 and 3

Explanation:

  • Statement 1 is incorrect: Black corals can be found growing both in shallow waters and deep waters. Some individual corals can survive for over 4,000 years. Many of these corals are branched and look like feathers, fans or bushes, while others are straight like a whip.
  • Statement 2 is incorrect: Although black corals occur throughout all oceans and from subtidal to abyssal depths, they are particularly common in tropical and subtropical regions at depths below 50 m. Black corals are generally found in areas with hard substrates, low-light and strong currents. Antipatharians, commonly known as black corals, are treasured by many cultures for medicinal purposes and to produce jewellery.
  • Statement 3 is correct: Unlike the shallow-water corals that rely on the sun and photosynthesis for energy, black corals are filter feeders and consume tiny zooplankton that are abundant in deep waters. Zooplankton appears to be the major component of the diet of black corals, which feed as suspension feeders and use mucus and nematocysts to capture their prey. Similarly to shallow-water corals, black corals act as important habitats where fish and invertebrates feed and hide from predators.

Q) With reference to Right to Convert, consider the following statements:

  1. Forcible conversions are not allowed under Article 25 of the Constitution.
  2. In any part of the country, such forcible conversions are prohibited by a central law.

Which of the statements given above is/are not correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Explanation:

Articles 25 to 28 of the Indian Constitution grant the right to freedom of religion to not only individuals but also religious groups in India.

  • Statement 1 is correct: Article 25 says that all persons are equally entitled to freedom of conscience and the right to freely profess, practice and propagate religion. Under the Right to propagate religion transmission and dissemination of one’s religious beliefs to others or exposition of the tenets of one’s religion is allowed. But, it does not include a right to convert another person to one’s own religion. Forcible conversions impinge on the ‘freedom of conscience’ guaranteed to all the persons alike.These rights are subject to public order, morality, health and other provisions relating to fundamental rights. Moreover, these rights are available to all persons–citizens as well as noncitizens.
  • Statement 2 is incorrect: Currently, there are no central laws restricting or regulating religious conversions. However, many Private Member Bills have been introduced in the Parliament, to regulate religious conversions. There are yet to be approved. Many states have implemented laws to prevent forceful religious conversions. In Sarala Mudgal’s case in 1995, the Supreme Court had made observations regarding the necessity of having a unified Central Legislation on Religious Conversion.

Q) With reference to the Ring of Fire, consider the following statements:

  1. Three-fourth of all the active volcanoes on Earth occurs along the Ring of Fire.
  2. The volcanic activity witnessed around the Ring is due to convergent plate boundaries.
  3. The Shiveluch is a Hawaiian shield volcano found around the Ring of Fire.

which of the following statements is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 1 and 2 only
  3. 2 and 3 only
  4. 1, 2 and 3

Explanation:

  • Statement 1 is correct: The Ring of Fire, also referred to as the Circum-Pacific Belt, is a path along the Pacific Ocean characterized by active volcanoes and frequent earthquakes. Roughly 90% of all earthquakes occur along the Ring of Fire, and the ring is dotted with 75% of all active volcanoes on Earth.
  • Statement 2 is correct: Many volcanoes in the Ring of Fire were created through a process of subduction. A convergent plate boundaryis formed by tectonic plates crashing into each other. Convergent boundaries are often subduction zones, where the heavier plate slips under the lighter plate, creating a deep trench. This subduction changes the dense mantle material into buoyant magma, which rises through the crust to the Earth’s surface. Over millions of years, the rising magma creates a series of active volcanoes known as a volcanic arc.
  • Statement 3 is incorrect: The Shiveluch volcano in Russia’s far eastern Kamchatka peninsula. It is a stratovolcano composed of alternating layers of solidified ash, hardened lava and volcanic rocks. It is one of the largest and most active volcanoes in Kamchatka, having erupted at least 60 times in the past 10,000 years. Kamchatka Peninsula is a 1,250km-long peninsula in the Russian Far East. The Pacific Ocean and the Sea of Okhotsk make up the peninsula’s eastern and western coastlines, respectively. Kamchatka is home to 29 active volcanoes, part of a vast belt of Earth known as the “Ring of Fire”.

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