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Daily Current Affairs for UPSC – 28 September 2022

 

Daily Current Affairs for UPSC 2022

Q) Recently in news, Breakthrough Agenda Report 2022 is published by –

  1. United Nations Development Programme
  2. UN Environment Programme
  3. World Economic Forum
  4. International Energy Agency

Explanation:

  • The first annual Breakthrough Agenda Report has been released by International Energy Agency (IEA).

About the report:

  • It is a progress report on the actions required to deliver on the historic clean technology commitment by governments representing two-thirds of the global economy.
  • It is endorsed by 45 world leaders, including those of the G7, China and India.
  • Aim: To align countries’ actions and coordinate investment to scale up deployment and reduce costs across five key sectors – power, road transport, steel, hydrogen and agriculture.

Daily Current Affairs for UPSC – 27th September 2022

Q) Consider the following statements regarding Rotterdam Convention

  1. It is established to help nations make knowledgeable decisions about the trade in dangerous chemicals.
  2. It is a legally enforceable document which came into force in 2004 with India as founding member.
  3. The Convention establishes a prior informed consent (“PIC”) procedure to ensure that restricted hazardous chemicals are not exported to countries that do not wish to receive them.

Which of these statements are correct?

  1. 1 and 3 only
  2. All of the above
  3. 2 and 3 only
  4. 1 and 2 only

Explanation:

About Rotterdam Convention

  • The Rotterdam Convention is an international agreement established to help nations make knowledgeable decisions about the trade in dangerous chemicals. (Statement 1 is correct)
  • It came into force in 2004.
  • It is a legally enforceable document.
  • In 2006, India joined the Convention. (Statement 2 is not correct)
  • The Convention establishes a prior informed consent (“PIC”) procedure to ensure that restricted hazardous chemicals are not exported to countries that do not wish to receive them. (Statement 3 is correct)
    • The PIC procedure does not ban or restrict any chemicals, nor does it mean that any individual country must automatically prohibit their import.
    • Parties to the convention implement the PIC procedure through extensive information exchange, priority attention to national decisions on imports, and obligations related to export controls.

Q) Recently in news, Anupam Varma Committee was constituted in 2013 to review which of the following?

  1. Insolvency and Bankruptcy Code, 2016
  2. Companies Act, 2013
  3. Pesticidal Chemicals
  4. Agricultural Reforms

Explanation:

About Anupam Varma committee:

  • The Anupam Varma Committee was constituted in 2013 to review the use of neonicotinoid pesticides in India and 66 pesticides banned or restricted in other countries but continued to be registered for use in India.
  • The Committee recommended a ban on 13 extremely hazardous pesticides.
  • Phasing out of six moderately hazardous ones by 2020.

Q) Recently in news, Hurricane Ian has recently made landfall in which of the following?

  1. Florida, USA
  2. Cuba
  3. Puerto Rico
  4. Nicaragua

Explanation:

Context: Hurricane Ian, that recently made landfall in Cuba, experienced a phenomenon known as rapid intensification i.e. getting very strong, very fast.

More on the News

  • The National Hurricane Center had predicted the Hurricane Ian would rapidly intensify from a tropical storm to at least a category 4 hurricane in less than 72 hours.
  • Also, the recent Super Typhoon Noru in Philippines experienced an intensification from the equivalent of a category 1 hurricane to a category 5 in less than 24 hours.

Q) Consider the following statements regarding Taj Mahal

  1. It is a mausoleum complex built by the Mughal emperor, Shahjahan in memory of his wife Mumtaz Mahal.
  2. It is situated on the left bank of the Yamuna River in Agra, Uttar Pradesh.

Which of these statements are correct?

  1. 2 only
  2. Both
  3. None
  4. 1 only

Explanation:

Taj Mahal

  • About: It is a mausoleum complex built by the Mughal emperor, Shahjahan in memory of his wife Mumtaz Mahal. The monument covers an area of 42 acres.
  • Location: It is situated on the right bank of the Yamuna River in Agra, Uttar Pradesh.
  • Architect: Ustad-Ahmad Lahori.
  • Construction materials: Principally Red Sandstone from local quarries and White Marble dug from the hills of far-off Makrana, slightly southwest of Jaipur in Rajasthan.

Q) Consider the following statements regarding Flex Fuel

  1. Flex fuel engines are the ones which run on alternate fuels different from gasoline and petroleum.
  2. India is all set to get its first flex-fuel car by Toyota

Which of these statements are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. Both
  3. 2 only
  4. None

Explanation:

About Flex Fuel technology

  • Flex fuel, or flexible fuel, is an alternative fuel made of a combination of gasoline and methanol or ethanol. (Statement 1 is not correct)
  • Flex-fuel vehicles (FFVs) are those that have internal combustion engines designed to run on more than one type of fuel and also a mixture. It was first developed in the early 1990s and used in the mass-produced 1994 Ford Taurus. (Statement 2 is correct)
  • Component of FFVs: Flex fuel vehicles have one fuel system. Most components are the same as those found in a conventional petrol-only car.
    • But, some special ethanol-compatible components are required to adjust to the different chemical properties and energy content in ethanol or methanol, such as modifications to the fuel pump and fuel injection system.
    • The Engine Control Module (ECM) is also calibrated to accommodate the higher oxygen content of ethanol.

Q) Consider the following statements regarding Rohini RH-200

  1. The RH-200 is a trusted member of the Rohini sounding rocket family. The rocket is used by the ISRO for atmospheric studies.
  2. The ‘200’ in the name of the rocket denotes the distance the rocket travels in km.
  3. The RH-200 rocket previously used a polyvinyl chloride (PVC)-based propellant. A new propellant based on hydroxyl- terminated Polybutadiene (HTPB)

Which of these statements are correct?

  1. 1 and 3 only
  2. 2 and 3 only
  3. All of the above
  4. 1 and 2 only

Explanation:

About Rohini RH-200 sounding rocket

  • The RH-200 is a trusted member of the Rohini sounding rocket family. The rocket is used by the ISRO for atmospheric studies. (Statement 1 is correct)
    • The ‘200’ in the name of the rocket denotes the diameter of the rocket in mm. (Statement 2 is not correct)
  • RH-200 is a two-stage rocket having a capability to climb to a height of 70 km bearing scientific payloads.
    • RH-300 Mk-II and RH-560 Mk-III are other operational variants of Rohini.
  • Fuel: The RH-200 rocket previously used a polyvinyl chloride (PVC)-based propellant. A new propellant based on hydroxyl-terminated Polybutadiene (HTPB) was successfully tested in September 2020. (Statement 3 is correct)
    • HTPB propellant is more energetic, has higher mechanical & interface properties and has fewer defects.

Q) The Fund of Funds for Startups (FFS) has committed Rs. 7,385 crores to 88 Alternative Investment Funds (AIFs), under the Startup India initiative. This FFS Scheme is operationalized by –

  1. DPIIT, Min of Commerce
  2. Finance Commission
  3. SIDBI
  4. NARBARD

Explanation:

  • The Fund of Funds for Startups (FFS) has committed Rs. 7,385 crores to 88 Alternative Investment Funds (AIFs), under the Startup India initiative.

About Funds of Funds for Startups (FFS) scheme

  • The Small Industries Development Bank of India (SIDBI) is responsible for operationalizing the FFS scheme.
  • FFS scheme provides funds for AIFs. These AIFs, in turn invest in domestic startups.
  • FFS was announced with an initial corpus of Rs. 10,000 crores. The corpus is to be built over 14th and 15th Finance Commission Cycles using budgetary support given by the Department for Promotion of Industry and Internal Trade (DPIIT), Ministry of Commerce & Industry.

Q) Consider the following statements regarding Cheetah Mitras

  1. Cheetah Mitras are government officials within the National Parks responsible solely for protection and care of Cheetahs.
  2. Cheetah Mitras increase the awareness of the population about Cheetahs

Which of these statements are correct?

  1. Both
  2. 2 only
  3. 1 only
  4. None

Explanation:

Who is Cheetah Mitra?

About

  • Cheetah mitras have mainly been involved by the government to familiarize the local populations with the Cheetahs and minimize potential conflicts (As the main cause of the extinction of Cheetah from India was a lack of awareness and sensitization of humans towards the wildlife).
  • This initiative is like the one taken to aid the conservation of the Asiatic lions in Gujarat.

Roles and Responsibilities

  • The main role of Cheetah Mitra is to protect the cheetahs brought from Namibia.
  • To make the local population understand more about the cheetah and its characteristics. (Statement 2 is correct)
  • They will take care that the animal does not move outside the park and into the villages, and alert officials in times of need.

How are Cheetah Mitras selected?

  • Almost 400 Cheetah Mitra from 51 villages, including schoolteachers, village headmen, and patwaris have received training from Forest officials. (Statement 1 is not correct)
  • Participants were selected for the role of Cheetah Mitras On the basis of verbal interaction and a basic general knowledge test.

Q) Consider the following statements regarding Ram Setu

  1. The Ram Setu is a 480-km chain of limestone shoals between Rameswaram and Mannar Island.
  2. The structure has significance in both Hindus and Muslims.
  3. Scientists believe Ram Setu is a natural structure formed due to tectonic movements and sand getting trapped in corals.

Which of these statements are correct?

  1. 1 and 2 only
  2. 1 only
  3. 2 and 3 only
  4. 3 only

Explanation:

About Ram Setu

  • The Ram Setu, also known as Adam’s Bridge, is a 48-km chain of limestone shoals between Rameswaram on India’s southeast coast and Mannar Island near Sri Lanka’s northwest coast. (Statement 1 is not correct)
  • The structure has significance in both Hindus and Muslims. Hindus believe this is the bridge (Setu) built by Lord Ram and his army to cross to Lanka and fight Ravan. (Statement 2 is correct)
    • As per Islamic legend, Adam used this bridge to reach Adam’s Peak in Sri Lanka, where he stood on one foot for 1,000 years in repentance.
  • Scientists believe Ram Setu is a natural structure formed due to tectonic movements and sand getting trapped in corals. (Statement 3 is correct)

Daily Current Affairs for UPSC – 29th September 2022

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