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Daily Current Affairs for UPSC – 28 March 2023

Daily Current Affairs for UPSC 2023

Q) Which one of the following statements is not correct with respect to Sarus Crane?

  1. They are predominantly omnivorous birds.
  2. They are mostly found in open wetlands in South Asia.
  3. It is categorized as endangered under the IUCN Red List.
  4. It is threatened by collisions with power lines in their range.

Daily Current Affairs for UPSC – 27 March 2023


  • Option (1) is correct: Recently, a man in Uttar Pradesh has been arrested for bringing home an injured Sarus crane. The Sarus crane is the tallest flying bird in the world standing 152-156 cm tall with a wingspan of 240cm. It has a predominantly grey plumage with a naked red head and upper neck and pale red legs. Sarus cranes, like all cranes, are omnivores and feed on aquatic plants such as tubers of sedges, invertebrates, grains, small vertebrates and insects.
  • Option (2) is correct: The optimal habitat of the Sarus crane bird includes a combination of small seasonal marshes, floodplains, high altitude wetlands, human-altered ponds, fallow and cultivated lands and paddy fields. They are majorly found in:
  • Open wetlands in South Asia
  • Seasonally flooded Dipterocarpus forests in Southeast Asia and
  • Eucalyptus-dominated woodlands and grasslands in Australia.
  • Option (3) is incorrect: The Sarus crane has been categorised as “vulnerable” under the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Red List. It is also Listed in Schedule IV of the Wildlife (Protection) Act 1972.
  • Option (4) is correct: Threats faced by the Sarus Crane includes:
  • Loss and degradation of wetlands, as a result of drainage and conversion to agriculture.
  • Ingestion of pesticides.
  • The hunting of adults and collection of eggs and chicks for trade, food, medicinal purposes and, in certain areas, to help prevent damage to crops.
  • Collision with power lines poses a significant threat in parts of its range.

Q) With reference toBiotransformation Technology’, consider the following statements:

  1. The biotransformation process can convert plastic waste into a biodegradable substance without leaving any microplastics.
  2. Both biocatalysis and bioprocessing are methods used in the biotransformation process.
  3. As the biocatalytic reactions are much faster than the ordinary plastic dissolving process, this process can be easily applied for industrial uses.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 and 2 only
  2. 1 and 3 only
  3. 2 and 3 only
  4. 1, 2 and 3


  • Statement 1 is correct: Biotransformation technology is a process of altering the structure of plastic material to make it biodegradable. This means that it can break down naturally into harmless substances when exposed to the environment. The biotransformation process results in the conversion of plastic waste into water, CO2, and biomass, with no harmful microplastics left behind.  This technology is considered a breakthrough in the effort to reduce plastic pollution and promote sustainability.
  • Statement 2 is correct: There are various types of Biotransformation technologies such as Biocatalysis, Bioremediation, Bioprocessing, Metabolic Engeneering, whole-cell biocatalysis. With this technology, plastics are designed to have a specific time frame during which they function like conventional plastics, without compromising quality. Once that time frame ends and the plastic is exposed to the environment, it starts to self-destruct and transform into bioavailable wax, which can be consumed by microorganisms.
  • Statement 3 is incorrect: While biotransformation technology offers many advantages, there are also some limitations to its use:
  • Substrate specificity: Biocatalysts are often highly specific, which means that they may only be able to transform certain types of substrates. This can limit the range of compounds that can be transformed using biotransformation technology.
  • Process optimization: Biotransformation processes can be sensitive to process conditions, such as pH, temperature, and substrate concentration. Optimizing these conditions can be time-consuming and costly.
  • Scale-up challenges: Scaling up biotransformation processes from the laboratory to industrial production can be challenging. This is due to the complex nature of biological systems, which can be difficult to control and optimize on a large scale.
  • Enzyme stability: Enzymes used in biotransformation processes can be sensitive to changes in temperature, pH, and other process conditions. This can lead to reduced activity and lower yields.
  • Cost: The cost of biotransformation processes can be higher than traditional chemical processes due to the need for specialized equipment and expertise.
  • Time: Biocatalytic reactions may take longer than traditional chemical reactions, which can limit their use in some industrial applications where rapid reaction times are required.

Q) Consider the following statements about ‘e-VTOL’:

  1. It is a vertical takeoff and landing air transportation system.
  2. It is very cost-effective and emits almost no carbon dioxide.
  3. It was recently launched at all the major airports in India.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 1 and 2 only
  3. 1 and 3 only
  4. 2 and 3 only


  • Statement 1 and 2 are correct: India is now looking at transitioning into electric vertical take-off and landing (eVTOL) advanced air mobility (AAM) operations to address its regional and urban mobility issues. AAM is an air transportation system that moves people and cargo between short distances, otherwise not served or underserved by aviation using eVTOL. eVTOL aircraft is a variety of VTOL aircraft that uses electric power to hover, take off, and land vertically. eVTOLs are designed to pick up passengers from rooftops of their apartment blocks to ferry them across the city to their respective offices or entertainment centres. They have close to zero carbon emission. They are also cost effective, and economica.
  • Statement 3 is incorrect: eVTOL are known as electric air taxis. Countries like Singapore, UAE, France, Germany, UK and US have already announced their plans to launch these air taxis by 2025.It is yet to be launched in India. India has one of the largest EV markets globally, and eVTOL pioneers hope to build the sectors in tandem with a vision to improve multimodal mobility.

Q) With reference to Sukanya Samriddhi Scheme’ (SSS), consider the following statements:

  1. An account in the name of the girl child can be opened at any of the private sector banks as per the scheme
  2. The girl child has to be less than five years old at the time of account opening.
  3. As per the recommendation of the Shyamala Gopinath Committee, the government resets the interest rates given under the scheme after every quarter.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 1 and 2 only
  3. 2 and 3 only
  4. 1, 2 and 3


  • Statement 1 is correct: Sukanya Samriddhi Yojana is a small saving scheme by Indian Government, which is aimed at the betterment of girl child in India. It was one of the schemes introduced under the Beti Bachao Beti Padhaocampaign. Under the scheme, an account in the name of the girl child can be opened across any of the private and public sector banks.
  • Statement 2 is incorrect: Parents/guardians can invest a minimum of Rs 1,000 and up to Rs 1.5 lakhs every year in this account. The initial minimum deposit must be Rs 250. Deposits can only be made for the first 15 years after opening the account, after which the funds will grow from the accumulated compound interest. The girl child has to be under 10 years at the time of account opening. The account will be operational till the age of 21. One girl can have only one Sukanya Samriddhi Account. Only two Sukanya Samriddhi Yojana accounts can be opened per family.
  • Statement 3 is incorrect: Investors in the SukanyaSamriddhi scheme are not expected to get higher returns. The government is no longer in complete agreement with the Shyamala Gopinath Committee formula that recommended to reset small savings rates every quarter in accordance with the prevailing yields on government bonds of comparable tenures. If the recommendations of the committee report were followed, then Sukanya Samriddhi scheme’s returns would have been raised to 8.22% during the October to December quarter.

Q) Consider the following statements about ‘Sticky Inflation’:

  1. It is an economic situation which results from the combination of high inflation and stagnant growth.
  2. It is primarily caused by decreased spending due to cost-push factors.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2


  • Statements 1 and 2 are correct: Sticky inflation is an undesirable economic situation where there is a combination of stubbornly high inflation, (and often stagnant growth). Inflation being sticky essentially means that inflation is taking longer than expected to fall. Essentially, higher food and fuel prices have seeped into the broader economy and made other things costlier. Sticky inflation is often associated with cost-push factors, i.e., factors that cause a rise in the inflation rate but also lead to lower spending and economic growth. RBI report on sticky inflation has given rise to the possibility of a rate hike. Inflation refers to a sustained increase in the general price level of goods and services in an economy over a period of time. It is the rise in the prices of most goods and services of daily or common use, such as food, clothing, housing, recreation, transport, consumer staples, etc. Inflation measures the average price change in a basket of commodities and services over time.

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