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Daily Current Affairs for UPSC – 27 September 2022

 

Daily Current Affairs for UPSC 2022

Q) Consider the following statements regarding the Indian Regional Navigation Satellite System (IRNSS).

  1. It consists of a constellation of 8 satellites located at approximately 36,000 Km. Currently, 7 satellites are active.
  2. Primary service area extends up to 3500 kms from the boundaries of Indian landmass. The IRNSS System is expected to provide a position accuracy of better than 20 m in the primary service area.
  3. There is an encrypted service under IRNSS which is much more accurate (in the range of 1 to 5 meters), and meant for defence applications and use by armed forces.

Which of these statements are correct?

  1. 2 and 3 only
  2. 1 and 3 only
  3. All of the above
  4. 1 and 2 only

Daily Current Affairs for UPSC – 26th September 2022

Explanation:

  • About: The Indian Regional Navigation Satellite System (IRNSS), with an operational name of NavIC, is an independent stand-alone navigation satellite system developed by the ISRO.
  • Timeline: NavIC was originally approved in 2006. It was expected to be completed by late 2011, but only became operational in 2018.
  • Constellation: It consists of a constellation of 8 satellites located at approximately 36,000 Km. Currently, 7 satellites are active. (Statement 1 is correct))
  • Coverage:
    • Primary service area: This region extends up to 1500 kms from the boundaries of Indian landmass. The IRNSS System is expected to provide a position accuracy of better than 20 m in the primary service area. (Statement 2 is not correct)
    • Extended Service Area: Lies between primary service area and area enclosed by the rectangle from Latitude 30° S to 50° N, Longitude 30° E to 130° E.
  • Services: IRNSS provides two types of services:
    • Standard Positioning Service (SPS): This service is provided to all the users.
    • Restricted Service (RS): This is an encrypted service and much more accurate (in the range of 1 to 5 meters), and meant for defense applications and use by armed forces. (Statement 3 is correct)
  • Current usage: Currently, NavIC’s use is limited. It is being used in public vehicle tracking in India, for providing emergency warning alerts to fishermen venturing into the deep sea where there is no terrestrial network connectivity, and for tracking and providing information related to natural disasters.
IRNSS
IRNSS

Q) Consider the following statements regarding Permafrost

  1. Permafrost is a permanently frozen layer on or under Earth’s surface. It primarily consists of hard frozen ice.
  2. Permafrost can be found on land and below the ocean floor.
  3. Its thickness can range from one meter to more than 1,000 meters.

Which of these statements are correct?

  1. 1 and 3 only
  2. 1 and 2 only
  3. 2 and 3 only
  4. All of the above

Explanation:

What is Permafrost?

  • About: Permafrost is a permanently frozen layer on or under Earth’s surface. It consists of soil, gravel, and sand, usually bound together by ice. (Statement 1 is not correct)
  • Features:
    • Permafrost can be found on land and below the ocean floor.  (Statement 2 is correct)
    • Its thickness can range from one meter to more than 1,000 meters. (Statement 3 is correct)
    • Upper layer of permafrost known as ‘Active Layer’, that seasonally thaws, allowing for plant growth; this is an essential part of the tundra ecosystem.
  • Distribution:
    • It is found in areas where temperatures rarely rise above freezing i.e. often found in Arctic regions such as Greenland, the U.S. state of Alaska, Russia, China, and Eastern Europe.
    • Permafrost covers about 15% of the Northern Hemisphere or 11% of the global surface area.
Active Layer
Active Layer

Q) Consider the following statements regarding the Original Jurisdiction of the Supreme Court. Choose the option which is incorrect.

  1. Article 131 of the Constitution gives exclusive and original jurisdiction to the Supreme Court in matters of law between states or between states and the Union
  2. The Original jurisdiction of the Supreme Court extends to deciding disputes arising out of inter-state water sharing.
  3. Original jurisdiction of the SC does not extend to a dispute arising out of a treaty, agreement, covenant, or engagement which continues to be in operation and excludes such jurisdiction.
  4. A State can invoke Article 131 to approach the Supreme Court in case it feels that its legal rights are threatened or have been violated by another State or the Central government.

Explanation:

About Article 131

  • Article 131 of the Constitution gives exclusive and original jurisdiction to the Supreme Court in matters of law between states or between states and the Union. (a is correct)
  • A State can invoke Article 131 to approach the Supreme Court in case it feels that its legal rights are threatened or have been violated by another State or the Central government. (d is correct)
  • The dispute may be:
    • between the Government of India and one or more States, or
    • between the Indian Government and any State or States on one side and one or more other States on the other, or
    • between two or more States.
  • Exceptions:
    • Original jurisdiction of the SC does not extend to a dispute arising out of a treaty, agreement, covenant, or engagement which continues to be in operation and excludes such jurisdiction. (c. is correct)
    • The exclusive original jurisdiction of the SC is not applicable to cases where another body has jurisdiction under other provisions of the Constitution, or the jurisdiction of the SC is excluded.
    • Examples of exemptions include Articles 262 (inter-State water disputes), 280 (matters referred to Finance Commission) and 290 (adjustment of certain expenses and pensions between the Union and the States). (b. is not correct)

Q) Which of the following statements regarding qualification of Attorney General is incorrect?

  1. A High Court judge for five years or more
  2. An advocate in a High Court for 10 years or more
  3. An eminent jurist in the President’s opinion
  4. A District Judge for 10 years.

Explanation:

Appointment

  • The Attorney General of India is appointed by the President of India on the advice of the Union Cabinet of ministers.
  • The person appointed must be a citizen of India.
  • Qualification: A person must be qualified to be a Supreme Court judge, i.e. they must either be a judge of a High Court for five years or an advocate in a High Court for 10 years or an eminent jurist in the President’s opinion. (Statement d is not correct)
  • Removal
    • Holds office during President’s pleasure & can be removed by President at any time.
    • No grounds for removal or procedure mentioned in Constitution.

Q) Recently in news, the Big Trail Lake, is located in which country?

  1. Russian Federation
  2. United States of America
  3. Australia
  4. Iceland

Explanation:

  • The Big Trail Lake, a newly formed ‘thermokarst lake’, in Alaska is continuously releasing bubbles of methane—a greenhouse gas—into the atmosphere. (Alaska is in the USA)

Q) A nationwide operation code-named “Megh Chakra” was carried out. The operation relates to –

  1. Ensuring Rain-water harvesting capabilities
  2. Recording Monsoon related data
  3. Stopping excessive run-off due to rainfall in north India
  4. None of the above

Explanation:

Operation Megh Chakra

Context: The CBI carried out an operation code-named “Megh Chakra”, across the country.

About the operation:

  • The operation was against the circulation and sharing of Child Sexual Abuse Material (CSAM).
    • CSAM: It refers to possession, viewing, sharing, and creation of images or videos containing sexual or offensive material involving children.

Q) Consider the following statements regarding the River Tamirpani.

  1. It is a seasonal stream originating from Pothigai hills of the Western Ghats.
  2. It flows through Tirunelveli and Thoothukudi districts of the Tamil Nadu into the Gulf of Mannar.

Which of these statements are correct?

  1. 2 only
  2. Both
  3. 1 only
  4. None

Explanation:

  • Researchers from Ashoka Trust for Research and the Environment (ATREE) have initiated the restoration of the Tamirapani river.

About the River:

  • It is also known as Thamirabarani or Porunai. It is the only perennial river in Tamil Nadu. (Statement 1 is not correct)
  • Origin: Tamirapani originates from the Pothigai hills of the Western Ghats in Tirunelveli district of Tamil Nadu.
  • It flows through Tirunelveli and Thoothukudi districts of the Tamil Nadu into the Gulf of Mannar.  (Statement 2 is correct)
  • Tributaries: Servalar, Manimuthar, Karaiyar, Gadana nadhi, Pachaiar and Chittar are the major tributaries.

Q) WHO announced that Malawi has become the first country in southern Africa to eliminate Trachoma. Trachoma affects which of the following body parts?

  1. Nose
  2. Eyes
  3. Throat
  4. Lungs

Explanation:

  • WHO announced that Malawi has become the first country in southern Africa to eliminate trachoma.

About Trachoma

Pathogen:

 

  • A bacterium called Chlamydia trachomatis causes the infection.
Symptoms:

 

  • Early stages of trachoma cause conjunctivitis (pink eye).
  • These symptoms can include:
  • Mild itching and irritation of the eyes and eyelids, and
  • A discharge from the eyes
  • Further progress causes eye pain and blurred vision.
Impact:

 

  • Trachoma is an infection affecting eyes. It is the leading cause of infectious blindness in the world.
  • Advanced infection causes scarring inside the eyelid. This leads to the eyelashes brushing and scratching against the cornea.
  • This can lead to the development of corneal ulcers and vision loss.
Vulnerability:

 

  • The disease is prevalent in areas where there are water shortages, poor sanitation and infestations of flies.
Spread:
  • The infection spreads by direct contact with someone infected with the bacteria; insects like flies; contaminated objects like towels.
Treatment:

 

  • Antibiotics are used to treat early cases of trachoma. Early treatment can prevent long-term blindness.

Q) Which of the following are a part of Ambedkar Circuit recently announced by the Central Government?

  1. Janma Bhoomi
  2. Karma Bhoomi
  3. Nirvana Bhoomi
  4. Chaitya Bhoomi

Choose the correct option from the code below.

  1. 1, 2 and 4 only
  2. 1 and 4 only
  3. 1, 2 and 3 only
  4. 1 and 3 only

Explanation:

  • The Central government announced a special tourist circuit named Ambedkar circuit.
  • It will cover five key sites associated with Dr B.R. Ambedkar.
  1. Janma Bhoomi- Ambedkar’s birthplace in Madhya Pradesh’s Mhow.
  2. Shiksha Bhoomi- the place in London where he stayed while studying in the UK.
  3. Deeksha Bhoomi- the place in Nagpur where he embraced Buddhism.
  4. Mahaparinirvan Bhoomi- the place of his demise in Delhi.
  5. Chaitya Bhoomi- the place of his cremation is in Mumbai.

Q) Recently in news, Surjapuri and Bajjika dialects have common linkage to which of the following languages?

  1. Bengali
  2. Hindi
  3. Bhojpuri
  4. Maithili

Explanation:

  • The Bihar government has decided to set up two new academies to promote local dialects — Surjapuri and Bajjika

About the Initiative

  • It is aimed at protecting indigenous language and culture,
  • It will be set up on the lines of eight already existing centres, constituted for the promotion of other dialects.
  • Eight already existing language academies are Bihar Hindi Granth Academy, Maithili academy, Magahi Academy, Bangla Academy, Sanskrit Academy, Bhojpuri Academy, Angika Academy and South Indian languages organization.
Surjapuri and Bajjika Dialect
Surjapuri and Bajjika Dialect

Daily Current Affairs for UPSC – 28th September 2022

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