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Daily Current Affairs for UPSC – 25 November 2022

 

Daily Current Affairs for UPSC 2022

Q) With respect to Pradhan Mantri Fasal Bima Yojana (PMFBY), consider the following statements:

  1. PMFBY is compulsory for farmers availing crop loans whereas for others it is voluntary.
  2. PMFBY covers the losses in the case of standing crops being destroyed by wild animals.
  3. PMFBY provides insurance coverage for all food grain and oilseed crops.

Which of the statements given above are correct?

  1. 1 and 2 only
  2. 2 and 3 only
  3. 3 only
  4. 1, 2 and 3

Daily Current Affairs for UPSC – 24  November 2022

Explanation:

  • Statement 1 is incorrect: PMFBY was launched in February 2016 is an insurance service for farmers for their yields. It was formulated in line with One Nation–One Scheme theme by replacing earlier two schemes National Agricultural Insurance Scheme (NAIS) and Modified National Agricultural Insurance Scheme (MNAIS) by incorporating their best features and removing their inherent drawbacks (shortcomings). In February 2020, the centre has revamped PMFBY. Thus the enrolment is 100% voluntary for all farmers from 2020 Kharif. Earlier, it was compulsory for loanee farmers availing Crop Loan/Kisan Credit Card (KCC) account for notified crops.
  • Statement 2 is incorrect: The risks leading to crop loss which are to be covered under the scheme are: Yield losses (due to risks such as flooding, drought, pest attacks, lightning etc.); prevented sowing (due to adverse weather conditions); post-harvest losses; localized calamities (such as hailstorm, landslide, and Inundation etc.). Risks and losses arising out of following shall be excluded: War & kindred perils, nuclear risks, riots, malicious damage, theft, act of enmity, grazed and/or destroyed by domestic and/or wild animals, in case of Post–Harvest losses, the harvested crop bundled and heaped at a place before threshing and other preventable risks.
  • Statement 3 is correct: Under PMFBY all food & oilseed crops and annual commercial/horticultural crops for which past yield data is available are covered. The Centre has decided to limit the PMFBY premium rates – against which it would bear 50% of the subsidy – to a maximum of 30% in un-irrigated and 25% in irrigated areas. The state government has given the flexibility to states/UTs to implement PMFBY and given them the option to select any number of additional risk covers/features.

Q) With reference to Agni III missile, consider the following statements:

  1. It is a nuclear-capable surface-to-surface missile.
  2. It is an intercontinental ballistic missile with a range of more than 5,500 kilometers.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Explanation:

  • Statement 1 is correct: Agni missiles are long-range, nuclear weapons capable of surface-to-surface ballistic missiles. Agni-III is the third entrant in the Agni missile series. The missile is capable of carrying a nuclear warhead. Agni-III is compact for easy mobility and flexible deployment on a number of surface and sub-surface platforms. The first missile of the series, Agni-I, was developed under the Integrated Guided Missile Development Programme (IGMDP) and tested in 1989. Agni-1 to 5 missiles are now being designed and developed by the Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO).
  • Statement 2 is incorrect: Agni-III is Intermediate Range Ballistic Missile. The 16-meter long missile, weighing more than 48 tonnes, is capable of hitting target 3,500 kilometres away and is also capable of carrying a payload of over 1.5 tonnes. The two-stage solid fuel missile is equipped with sophisticated navigation, guidance and control systems and advanced on-board computer systems. It has a high range of circular error probable (CEP), due to which Agni-3 missile is known as the world’s most accurate strategic ballistic missile of its range class.

Q) With reference to reorganization of the Indian states, which of the following statements are not correct?

  1. The Linguistic Provinces Committee of 1948 rejected language as the basis for reorganization of states.
  2. The Fazl Ali Commission of 1953 recommended creation of 14 states and 6 union territories.
  3. The States Reorganization Act of 1956 established the separate states of Maharashtra and Gujarat.

Select the correct answer using the code given below:

  1. 1 and 2 only
  2. 2 and 3 only
  3. 1 and 3 only
  4. 1, 2 and 3

Explanation:

  • Statement 1 is correct: The integration of princely states with the rest of India has purely an ad hoc arrangement. There has been a demand from different regions, particularly South India, for reorganisation of states on linguistic basis. Accordingly, in December, 1948, Linguistic Provinces Committee was appointed by the government. It consisted of Jawaharlal Nehru, Vallahbhai Patel and Pattabhi Sitaramayya and hence, was popularly known as JVP Committee. It submitted its report in April, 1949, and formally rejected language as the basis for reorganisation of states.
  • Statement 2 is incorrect: In December, 1953, a three member States Reorganisation Commission under the chairmanship of Fazl Ali was appointed. Its other two members were K.M. Panikkar and H.N. Kunzru. It submitted its report in September 1955 and broadly accepted language as the basis of reorganisation of states. But, it rejected the theory of ‘one language-one state’. The commission suggested the abolition of the four-fold classification of states and territories under the original Constitution and creation of 16 states and 3 centrally administered territories. By the States Reorganisation Act (1956) and the 7th Constitutional Amendment Act (1956), 14 states and 6 union territories were created on November 1, 1956.
  • Statement 3 is incorrect: In 1960, the bilingual state of Bombay was divided into two separate states: Maharashtra for Marathi speaking people and Gujarat for Gujarati speaking people by the Bombay Reorganisation Act, 1960. Gujarat was established as the 15th state of the Indian Union.

Q) With respect to Leith’s Soft-shelled Turtle, consider the following statements:

  1. It is a freshwater turtle that is endemic to peninsular India.
  2. There has been 90 percent decline in its population in the last 30 years.
  3. It is included in Appendix II of the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna.

Which of the statements given above are correct?

  1. 1 and 2 only
  2. 2 only
  3. 1 and 3 only
  4. 2 and 3 only

Explanation:

  • Statement 1 is correct: Leith’s soft-shelled turtle is a large fresh water soft-shelled turtle which is endemic to peninsular India and can be found in rivers and reservoirs. It is found in all major rivers of the states of Maharashtra, Karnataka, Kerala, Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu and Orissa.
  • Statement 2 is correct: The species has been poached and illegally consumed within India. It has also been illegally traded abroad for consumption. The population has declined by 90% in the last 30 years. It is classified as Critically Endangered in IUCN red list
  • Statement 3 is incorrect: India’s proposal to move the turtle from Appendix II to Appendix I of the CITES of wild fauna and flora, has been adopted by the Conference of Parties (COP) to CITES. Thus bringing any species under Appendix I essentially means that it is now declared “threatened with extinction” under the international trade agreement. This means CITES will ensure there is no commercial trade of the species in any form. It would also ensure that international trade in captive-bred specimens only takes place from registered facilities and higher penalties are provided for illegal trade of the species.The species is listed on Schedule IV of the Wild Life (Protection) Act, 1972.

Q) With reference to Lachit Borphukan, consider the following statements:

  1. He was the military commander of the Ahom kingdom, well known for waging guerilla warfare against the Mughals.
  2. He successfully defeated the Mughal forces in the Battle of Saraighat of 1671.

Select the correct answer using the code given below:

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Explanation:

  • Statement 1 is correct: General Lachit Borphukan was born on 24th November, 1622, Lachit Borphukan was an Army General of Ahom (Assam) Kingdom and is revered as the greatest military hero of Assam. He excelled in the art of Guerrilla Warfare. And he was the inspiration behind strengthening India’s naval force and revitalizing inland water transport due to his great naval strategies. The Lachit Borphukan gold medal is awarded to the best cadet from the National Defence Academy. It was instituted in 1999 to inspire defence personnel to emulate Borphukan’s heroism and sacrifices.
  • Statement 2 is correct: He is known for his exemplary leadership in the Battle of Saraighat (1671), where the Ahoms defeated the Mughal forces. The battle was fought on the Brahmaputra River near Saraighat between the Mughal and the Ahom Kingdom in 1671. It was the last major attempt by the Mughals to extend their empire into Assam. It is regarded as one of the great battles fought. The battle was a decisive one but it didn’t bring the Mughal- Ahom conflict to an end. Later in the battle of Itakhuli in 1682, the Mughal presence in Assam came to an end.

 

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