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Daily Current Affairs for UPSC – 22 February 2023

Daily Current Affairs for UPSC 2023

Q) Recently seen in news, the ‘New START treaty’ is best related to which one of the following?

  1. Promoting the use of space for peaceful purposes
  2. Climate finance for building climate-resilient infrastructure
  3. Checking the use of nuclear weapons and arms reduction
  4. Developing new age technologies by using artificial technology

Daily Current Affairs for UPSC – 21 February 2023


  • Option (3) is correct: Recently, Russian President Vladimir Putin announced that Russia is suspending its participation in the New START Treaty. It is a treaty between the United States of America and the Russian Federation for the Further Reduction and Limitation of Strategic Offensive Arms. It entered into force on February 5, 2011, and placed new verifiable limits on intercontinental-range nuclear weapons. It is the only remaining nuclear arms control treaty between the two countries. START-I was signed between the US and the erstwhile USSR in 1991, and came into force in 1994. START-I capped the numbers of nuclear warheads and intercontinental ballistic missiles (ICBMs) that each side could deploy at 6,000 and 1,600 respectively. It was lapsed in 2009, and was replaced first by the Strategic Offensive Reductions Treaty (SORT, also known as the Treaty of Moscow). SORT was later replaced by the New START treaty. Since the New START Treaty’s entry into force, as of February 1, 2023, the two parties have conducted on-site inspections, held meetings of the Bilateral Consultative Commission, and held biannual data exchanges on strategic offensive arms subject to the treaty.

Q) Consider the following statements about ‘Deep Sea Mining’:

  1. Due to release of mineral-rich fluids around hydrothermal vents Seafloor massive sulfides are formed on the ocean floor.
  2. All mining-related activities in the international seabed region outside of the purview of national jurisdiction must be governed by the International Seabed Authority.
  3. Deep sea mining could change the behaviour of cetaceans by disrupting their communication processes.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 and 2 only
  2. 2 and 3 only
  3. 1 and 3 only
  4. 1, 2 and 3 


  • Statement 1 is correct: The deep sea is characterized by extremely high pressure, low temperatures, and darkness. Some of the notable features of the deep sea include underwater mountains and ridges, vast plains and canyons, hydrothermal vents, and cold seeps. Deep sea minerals are found in the ocean floor, specifically in the deeper parts of the ocean, beyond the continental shelf. Polymetallic nodules are small, rounded lumps of minerals that are found on the seafloor, usually on abyssal plains. They are composed of manganese, iron, nickel, copper, and cobalt. Seafloor massive sulfides (SMS) form around hydrothermal vents, where hot, mineral-rich fluids are released from the seafloor. SMS deposits are composed of copper, gold, silver, zinc, and other metals. Cobalt-rich crusts form on the seafloor, typically on seamounts and other volcanic features. They are composed of cobalt, nickel, iron, manganese, and other metals. Depleting terrestrial deposits and rising demand for metals are stimulating interest in the deep sea, with focus on commercial mining.
  • Statement 2 is correct: The International Seabed Authority (ISA) is responsible for organizing, regulating, and controlling all mineral-related activities in the international seabed area beyond the limits of national jurisdiction. ISA is an intergovernmental organization that was established by the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS) in 1994. Till May 2022, ISA had issued 31 contracts to explore deep-sea mineral deposits.
  • Statement 3 is correct: A recent study published in journal Frontiers in Marine Science has observed that deep seabed mining operations could present serious risks to ocean ecosystems. If allowed, commercial-scale mining is expected to operate 24 hours a day, causing noise pollution. The mining noise can overlap with the frequencies at which cetaceans communicate, which cause auditory masking and behaviour can change in marine mammals. Deep-sea mining will stir up fine sediments on the seafloor consisting of silt, clay and the remains of microorganisms, creating plumes of suspended particles. Settlement of sediment plumes generated by mining vehicles could smother the species at the bottom of the ocean, or benthic species, in the vicinity.

Q) Consider the following pairs:

S. No Leaders of 1857 revolt Associated Region
1. Begum Hazrat Mahal Kanpur
2. Khan bahadur Lucknow
3. Kunwar Singh Bihar
4. Maulvi Ahmadullah Allahabad

How many of the following pairs is/are correctly matched?

  1. Only one pair
  2. Only two pairs
  3. Only three pairs
  4. All three pairs


  • Pair 1 is incorrectly matched: Begum Hazrat Mahal took over the reigns at Lucknow where the rebellion broke out on June 4, 1857 and popular sympathy was overwhelmingly in favour of the deposed nawab. Her son, Birjis Qadir, was proclaimed the nawab and a regular administration was organised with important offices shared equally by Muslims and Hindus. Henry Lawrence, the British resident, the European inhabitants and a few hundred loyal sepoys took shelter in the residency. The residency was besieged by the Indian rebels and Sir Henry was killed during the siege. The command of the besieged garrison devolved on Brigadier Inglis who held out against heavy odds. The early attempts of Sir Henry Havelock and Sir James Outram to recover Lucknow met with no success. Finally, Sir Colin Campbell, the new commander-in-chief, evacuated the Europeans with the help of Gorkha regiments. In March 1858, the city was finally recovered by the British, but guerrilla activity continued till September of the same year.
  • Pair 2 is incorrectly matched: At Bareilly, Khan Bahadur, a descendant of the former ruler of Rohilkhand, was placed in command. Not enthusiastic about the pension being granted by the British, he organised an army of 40,000 soldiers and offered stiff resistance to the British. In Bihar, the revolt was led by Maulvi Ahmadullah of Faizabad was another outstanding leader of the revolt. He was a native of Madras and had moved to Faizabad in the north where he fought a stiff battle against the British troops. He emerged as one of the revolts’s acknowledged leaders once it broke out in Awadh in May 1857.
  • Pair 3 is correctly matched: Kunwar Singh was the zamindar of Jagdishpur, Bihar. An old man in his seventies, he nursed a grudge against the British who had deprived him of his estates. He unhesitatingly joined the sepoys during the revolt of 1857 when they reached Arrah from Dinapore (Danapur).
  • Pair 4 is incorrectly matched: Maulvi Ahmadullah of Faizabad was another outstanding leader of the revolt. He was a native of Madras and had moved to Faizabad in the north where he fought a stiff battle against the British troops. He emerged as one of the revolt’s acknowledged leaders once it broke out in Awadh in May 1857

Q) With reference to ‘Uroosi’ Architecture, consider the following statements:

  1. It is an example of Indo-islamic architecture related to the Sharqi dynasty of Jaunpur.
  2. In this architectural technique, wooden shutters are used as partition walls within the structure.
  3. It has decorative pillars that are octagonal in shape.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 1 and 2 only
  3. 2 and 3 only
  4. 1, 2 and 3


  • Statement 1 is incorrect but statement 2 and 3 are correct: Uroosi architecture is Mughal-era architectural related to Kashmir. Uroosi are wooden shutters used as partition walls within homes, instead of concrete walls. Uroosi is believed to be a Persian term meaning ‘hidden bride’. It includes octagonal and decagonal ornamental pillars too. Uroosi is one such, where wooden shutters could be rolled up to make one room or rolled down from hanging grooves in ceiling chambers, to partition the space into separate areas. Jalali House is a landmark in Srinagar that has this architectural element. It has the ability to absorb seismic shocks and withstand them.

Q) Consider the following statements about ‘Vostro’ Account:

  1. It is an account that a foreign bank holds for a domestic bank for foreign exchange purposes.
  2. Any authorized bank can open multiple Special Rupee Vostro Accounts with different banks in the same country.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2


  • Statement 1 is incorrect: A vostro account is an account that domestic banks hold for foreign banks in the former’s domestic currency, in this case, the rupee. Domestic banks use it to provide international banking services to their clients who have global banking needs.  It is an integral offshoot of correspondent banking that entails a bank (or an intermediary) to facilitate wire transfer, conduct business transactions, accept deposits and gather documents on behalf of the other bank. It helps domestic banks gain wider access to foreign financial markets and serve international clients without having to be physically present abroad.
  • Statement 2 is correct: Special Rupee Vostro Accounts (SRVA) is an additional arrangement to the existing system that uses freely convertible currencies and works as a complimentary system. Freely convertible currencies refer to currencies permitted by rules and regulations of the concerned country to be converted to major reserve currencies (like U.S. dollar or pound sterling) and for which a fairly active market exists for dealings against major currencies. Authorised banks can open multiple SRV accounts for different banks from the same country. Balances in the account can be repatriated in freely convertible currency and/or currency of the beneficiary partner country depending on the underlying transaction.

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