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Daily Current Affairs for UPSC – 19 November 2022

 

Daily Current Affairs for UPSC 2022

 

Q) With reference to The Panchayat Extension to the Scheduled Areas (PESA) Act, 1996, consider the following statements:

  1. PESA act extends the provisions related to panchayat to scheduled and tribal areas.
  2. As per PESA Act, the Gram Panchayat is responsible for the identification of beneficiaries under poverty alleviation programmes.
  3. The Gram Sabha must be consulted in the planning and implementation of any developmental project in the scheduled area.
  4. The Gram Sabha’s prior recommendation is mandatory for granting concession for the exploitation of minor minerals by auction.

Which of the statements given above are not correct?

  1. 1, 2 and 3 only
  2. 1 and 3 only
  3. 2 and 4 only
  4. 1, 3 and 4 only

Daily Current Affairs for UPSC – 18  November 2022

Explanation:

Statement 1 is incorrect: The provisions of Part IX of the constitution relating to the Panchayats are not applicable to the Fifth Schedule areas. However, the Parliament may extend these provisions to such areas, subject to such exceptions and modifications as it may specify. Under this provision, the Parliament has enacted the “Provisions of the Panchayats (Extension to the Scheduled Areas) Act”, 1996, popularly known as the PESA Act or the Extension Act. At present (2019), ten states have Fifth Schedule Areas. These are: Andhra Pradesh, Telangana, Chhatisgarh, Gujarat, Himachal Pradesh, Jharkhand, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Odisha and Rajasthan. All the ten states have enacted requisite compliance legislations by amending the respective Panchayati Raj Acts. The objective of the PESA Act is to extend the provisions of Part IX of the Constitution relating to the panchayats to the scheduled areas under the Fifth Schedule of constitution.

Statement 2 is incorrect: As per PESA Act, every Gram Sabha shall approve of the plans, programmes and projects for social economic development before they are taken up implementation by the Panchayat at the village level and also be responsible for the identification of beneficiaries under poverty alleviation and other programmes.

Statement 3 is incorrect: The Gram Sabha or the Panchayats at the appropriate level shall be consulted before making the acquisition of land in the Scheduled Areas for development projects and before resettling or rehabilitating persons affected by such projects in the Scheduled Areas. However, the actual planning and implementation of the projects in the Scheduled Areas shall be coordinated at the state level.

Statement 4 is correct: The recommendations of the Gram Sabha or the Panchayats at the appropriate level shall be mandatory for grant of prospecting licence or mining lease for minor minerals in the Scheduled Areas. The prior recommendation of the Gram Sabha or the Panchayats at the appropriate level shall be mandatory for grant of concession for the exploitation of minor minerals by auction.

Q) Consider the following statements, with respect to red-crowned roofed turtle:

  1. It is a freshwater turtle species endemic to India.
  2. The male of the species shows dimorphic characteristics.
  3. It is already classified as critically endangered under IUCN red list and is a Schedule I species under the Wildlife Protection Act, 1972.

Which of the statements given above are correct?

  1. 1 and 2 only
  2. 1 and 3 only
  3. 2 and 3 only
  4. 1, 2 and 3

Explanation:

Statement 1 is incorrect: The Red-crowned roofed turtle is a freshwater turtle species, and found in deep flowing rivers with terrestrial nesting sites, native to India, Bangladesh and Nepal. Historically, the species was widespread in the Ganga River, both in India and Bangladesh. It also occurs in the Brahmaputra basin. Currently in India, the National Chambal River Gharial Sanctuary is the only area with substantial population of the species, but even this Protected Area and habitat are under threat

Statement 2 is correct: The male of the species exhibit dimorphism by producing distinct colours on the head, red, blue and yellow, to attract females during breeding season. Red-crowned roofed turtle’s shell can be as long as 56 cm and can weight upto 25 kg. In comparison to their female counterparts, the males are shorter and reach only half their length. Its head is moderate in size and has an obtuse and slightly prominent snout. Diet of the species consists exclusively of water plants. Adult females lay 11 to 30 eggs in March and April.

Statement 3 is correct: India has put forward a proposal to protect red-crowned roofed turtle under the CITES Appendix I. The species is already classified as critically endangered under IUCN red list; Wildlife Protection Act (IWPA): Schedule I; The Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES): Appendix II. In India, the National Chambal River Gharial Sanctuary is the only area with substantial population of the species. Their numbers have declined due to pollution, illegal sand mining, accidental drowning in fishing gear and hydrological projects undertaken in the Ganga basin. Illegal consumption and international trade are other reasons for its decline.

Q) With reference to Digital Personal Data Protection Bill, 2022, which of the following statements is/are correct?

  1. The bill’s provisions apply to offline data that was later digitized.
  2. It permits the cross-border storage and transfer of data.
  3. The Independent Data auditor has to be appointed by ‘Significant Data Fiduciaries’ to evaluate their compliance.
  4. It provides for penalties on individuals who give unverifiable information while applying for any service.
  5. It ensures that basic information is accessible in the languages specified in the eighth schedule of the Indian Constitution.

Which of the statements given above are correct?

  1. 1, 2 and 3 only
  2. 4 and 5 only
  3. 2, 3 and 5 only
  4. 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5

Explanation:

Statement 1 is correct: The draft Digital Personal Data Protection Bill 2022 has now been released by the Ministry of Electronics and IT (MeitY). It aims to outline the rights and duties of ‘digital nagriks’ or citizens while laying out the process and rules for data collection when it comes to companies. It applies to personal data collected online as well as the data collected offline but later digitized.

Statement 2 is correct: The bill also allows for cross-border storage and transfer of data to “certain notified countries and territories”. Government could exempt certain businesses from adhering to provisions of the Bill on the basis of the number of users and the volume of personal data processed by the entity. This has been done keeping in mind startups of the country who had complained that the previous version of the Bill was too “compliance intensive”.

Statement 3 is correct: The bill also talks of ‘Significant Data Fiduciaries, who deal with a high volume of personal data. The Central government will define who is designated under this category based on a number of factors ranging from the volume of personal data processed to the risk of harm to the potential impact on the sovereignty and integrity of India. Such entities will have to appoint a ‘Data protection officer’ who will represent them. Data Protection Officer will be the point of contact for grievance redressal. Companies will also have to appoint an independent Data auditor who shall evaluate their compliance with the act.

Statement 4 is correct: The Bill proposes six types of penalties for non-compliance one of them is the penalty of Rs 10,000 on individuals providing unverifiable or false information while applying for any document, service, proof of identity or address, or registering a false or frivolous complaint with a Data Fiduciary (who collects and processes the data) or with the Board.

Statement 5 is correct: The bill does away with the clause for compensation to affected Data Principals. It ensures that individuals should be able to “access basic information” in languages specified in the eighth schedule of the Indian Constitution. Individuals have the right to withdraw consent from a Data Fiduciary. Data principals will have the right to demand the erasure and correction of data collected by the data fiduciary. They have the right to nominate an individual who will exercise these rights in the event of death or incapacity of the data principal. It gives consumers the right to file a complaint against a ‘Data Fiduciary’ with the Data Protection Board in case they do not get a satisfactory response from the company.

Q) Consider the following statements:

  1. She was born in the Awadh region of the state of Uttar Pradesh.
  2. She was part of the royal guard of Begum Hazrat Mahal of Awadh.
  3. She mobilized dalit women of Pasi community against the British.

Which one of the following personalities is best described in the statements given above?

  1. Jhalkari Bai
  2. Uda Devi
  3. Durgawati Devi
  4. Tileshwari Barua

Explanation:

Option (2) is correct: Uda Devi belonged to the dalit Pasi community. She was known as a leader who managed to mobilise people, especially Dalit women, to take up arms against the British. She was part of the royal guard of Begum Hazrat Mahal of Awadh, who took part in the battle against the British forces. Uda Devi was among the soldiers who fought in the battle of Sikandar Bagh (1857) against the British regiment stationed near the Gomti River.

She was responsible for the killing of at least three dozen British soldiers from atop a tree before she could be spotted and killed. A statue of Uda Devi has been erected at Sikandar Bagh, Lucknow.

Q) Consider the following statements, with reference to the Balkan lynx:

  1. It is found in all the countries of the Balkan Peninsula.
  2. It is a flagship species on the verge of extinction.
  3. It is listed in Appendix II of the Bern Convention.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. 1 and 3 only
  4. 2 and 3 only

Explanation:

Statement 1 is incorrect: Balkan lynx is the third largest predator in Europe, Balkan region and in Albania after brown bear and wolf. It is now among the world’s most endangered mammals.

There are less than 40 of these solitary wild cats in the three Balkan countries viz Albania, Kosovo and North Macedonia. The Munella area is the home of the Balkan lynx in Albania, where a very small population lives and reproduces.

Statement 2 is correct: The Balkan lynx is in fact a typical flagship species. They are threatened by the degradation of its habitat and significant deforestation, which are depleting the prey they feed on and fragmenting its population. Other Factors: Illegal hunting, poaching, forest logging and degradation and lack of prey. Wildlife experts are tracking the Balkan lynx in a last effort to save the species from extinction.

Statement 3 is correct: The IUCN Status of the Balkan Lynx is critically endangered. It is part of CITES and listed in Appendix II of Bern Convention (The Convention on the Conservation of European Wildlife and Natural Habitats)

 

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