Indian Constitution Day
Constitution Day, also known as ‘Samvidhan Divas’ is celebrated in the country on 26th November every year to commemorate the adoption of the Constitution of India. The Ministry of Social Justice and Empowerment on 19th November 2015 notified the decision to celebrate the 26th day of November every year as ‘Constitution Day’ to promote Constitution values among citizens.
Read about: 42nd Amendment of Indian Constitution
Salient Features of Constitution India Article
- Lengthiest Written Constitution: The Constitution of India has the distinction of being the lengthiest and detailed Constitutional document the world has so far produced. The Constitution of India contains not only the fundamental principles of governance but also detailed administrative provisions.
- Drawn from Various Sources: The Constitution of India has borrowed most of its provisions from the constitutions of various other countries as well as the previous legislations such as the Government of India Acts 1919 and 1935, and the Indian Independence Act 1947 etc.
- Blend of Rigidity and Flexibility: Constitutions could be rigid like that of America or flexible like that of the UK based on Amendability. But, India’s Constitution is a synthesis of both.
- Federal System with Unitary Bias: India is a federal system but with more tilt towards a unitary system of government. It is sometimes considered a quasi-federal system as it has features of both a federal and a unitary system.
- Parliamentary Form of Government: The Constitution of India has opted for the British Parliamentary System of Government rather than the American Presidential system of government.
- Balance between Parliamentary Sovereignty and Judicial Supremacy: A fine balance has been struck between parliamentary sovereignty and judicial supremacy by the Indian Constitution.
- The Supreme Court, by its power of judicial review, it can strike down any parliamentary law as unconstitutional.
- The Parliament, being the representative of the people’s will, can amend the major part of the Constitution through Article 368.
- Independent and Integrated Judicial System: In India, unlike the United States where there is a two-tiered judiciary, a single judicial system prevails with the Supreme Court at the top, the State and District High Courts and other subordinate courts below and subject to the supervision of the High Courts.
- Single integrated State with Single Citizenship: India is the single Independent and Sovereign integrated state. All citizens enjoy a common uniform citizenship. They are entitled to equal rights and freedoms, and equal protection of the state.
- Basic Structure doctrine: The basic structure doctrine is an Indian judicial norm that the Constitution of India has certain basic features that cannot be changed or destroyed through amendments by the parliament.
Basic Functions of Constitution of India
Constitution of India FAQs
Q. Who is the father of the Indian Constitution?
Ans. The father of the Indian Constitution is regarded as Dr. Bhimrao Ramji Ambedkar. He was the law minister at the time who gave the Constituent Assembly its final draft.
Q. What is special about 26 November?
Ans. Every year on November 26 in India, National Constitution Day (National Law Day), often referred to as Samvidhan Divas, is observed to commemorate the adoption of the Indian Constitution.
Q. What are the 4 types of constitutions?
Ans. Major 4 types of Constitution include;
- Written Constitution
- Unwritten Constitution
- Rigid Constitution
- Flexible Constitution
Q. Who wrote Constitution Day of India?
Ans. On the basis of the reports of the 13 committees, a draft of the Constitution was prepared by a seven-member Drafting Committee which was headed by B.R. Ambedkar. With around 448 Articles, 25 Parts, and 12 Schedules, it is the world’s longest-written constitution.
Q. When was national Constitution Day celebrated?
Ans. On January 26, 1950, the Indian Constitution became effective. Every year on November 26, India observes Constitution Day, also known as National Law Day, to commemorate the day the Indian Constitution was adopted by the Constituent Assembly in 1949.