Bonn Global Biodiversity Conclave 2022
- Bonn Global Biodiversity Conclave is being organised in Bonn, Germany.
- During the conclave “Assessment on the Sustainable Use of Wild Species” report is published at the 9th conference of “Intergovernmental Science-Policy Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services (IPBES)”
- Assessment on the Sustainable Use of Wild Species” report is released at the ninth conference of IPBES on July 8, 2022.
- Delegates from 140 countries came together to discuss and reach an outcome on the sustainable use of wildlife.
- The report is the first of its kind and has been conceived after a period of four years.
- The new report discussed the diverse uses of wild species and practices associated with them including:
- Terrestrial animal harvesting (shearing and hunting)
Know About IBPES
- It is an independent intergovernmental body, established by member States in 2012.
- It strengthens the science-policy interface for biodiversity and ecosystem services for the conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity, long-term human well-being and sustainable development.
- It is meant to play a role similar to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change.
How does it differ from IPCC?
- Like IPCC, IPBES does not produce any new science. It only evaluates existing scientific knowledge to make assessments and projections.
- However, unlike IPCC, the IPBES assessment reports are likely to feed into and inform several multilateral processes.
Findings of the Report
- The use of wild species is an important source of income for millions of people worldwide.
- About 70% of the world’s poor population is directly dependent on wild species.
- 20% source their food from wild plants, algae and fungi.
- Wild tree species account for two thirds of global industrial roundwood, trade in wild plants, algae and fungi is a billion-dollar industry, and even non-extractive uses of wild species are big business.
- Recent global estimates indicate that approximately 34% of marine wild fish stocks are overfished and 66% are fished within biological sustainable levels but this global picture displays strong heterogeneities
- Unintentional bycatch of threatened and/or protected marine species is unsustainable for many populations including wild sea turtles, seabirds, sharks, rays, chimaeras, marine mammals and some bony fishes.
- Trade in wild plants, algae and fungi for food, medicine, hygiene, energy, and ornamental use is increasing.
- Large-bodied mammals are the most targeted species for subsistence and commercial hunting, as these animals provide more meat for consumption and sale to generate more economic benefits for hunters’ households.
- Logging for energy is prevalent globally, but reliance on wood for heating and cooking is highest in developing countries.
- Nature-based tourism is an important non-extractive practice and recreational use of wild species.
Rural People are at Risk
- Rural people in developing countries are most at risk from unsustainable use of Wild Species, with lack of complementary alternatives often forcing them to exploit wild species already at risk.
- About 50,000 wild species are used through different practices, including more than 10,000 wild species harvested directly for human food.
Report on Indian rules
- The report does not have country-specific information.
- However, India can identify with most of the trends pointed out in the report.
- India follows one of strictest laws on wildlife protection worldwide.
- In India, killing of any wildlife is a non-bailable offence. But the authors of the report maintain that, India needs to revise rules because stringent rules are good to some extent, but puts the vulnerable communities at risks.
- Vulnerable communities include tribal or people depending on forest resources.
- The report says there is still an opportunity for human beings to live in harmony with nature.
- But there has to be a change in the way how natural resources are governed, and things are produced and consumed.
- Addressing the causes of unsustainable use and, wherever possible reversing these trends, will result in better outcomes for wild species and the people who depend on them.
- Bringing scientists and indigenous peoples together to learn from each other will strengthen the sustainable use of wild species.
- Need to empower indigenous communities: The report noted that indigenous people and local communities used local knowledge, practices and spirituality for the sustainable use of wild species. They respected nature and only took what they needed.
- integration of diverse value systems,
- equitable distribution of costs and benefits,
- changes in cultural norms and social values and effective institutions
____________ is defined as an ecological state of a species being unique to a specific geographic location.
(a) Exotic species
(b) Endemic species
(d) None of the above